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FINAL EXAM. Time managment Benefits of Time Management Gain time through organization Motivates to complete tasks Reduces avoidance of work to be done.

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Presentation on theme: "FINAL EXAM. Time managment Benefits of Time Management Gain time through organization Motivates to complete tasks Reduces avoidance of work to be done."— Presentation transcript:

1 FINAL EXAM

2 Time managment

3 Benefits of Time Management Gain time through organization Motivates to complete tasks Reduces avoidance of work to be done Promotes review and study time Eliminates cramming for tests Reduces anxiety anagement.ppt

4 Benefits of Time Management Gain time through organization شکار وقت در سازمان Motivates to complete tasks ایجاد انگیزه در جهت اتمام فعالیتها Reduces avoidance of work to be done کاهش موانع انجام کار Promotes review and study time ترویج بازبینی و بررسی وقت Eliminates cramming for tests حذف تست های مکرر Reduces anxiety کاهش اضطراب و دلهره anagement.ppt

5 Purpose of Time (Self) Management  Stress=Managing time well can prevent much of the stress we are subject to.  Balance=Good time habits can enable us to achieve a more balanced life, with adequate time and energy for work, home, family, self. Mackenzie, 1997 uthscsa.edu/gme/documents/Peel/Time%2 0Management.ppt

6 Purpose of Time (Self) Management  Stress=Managing time well can prevent much of the stress we are subject to.  Balance=Good time habits can enable us to achieve a more balanced life, with adequate time and energy for work, home, family, self. Mackenzie, 1997 uthscsa.edu/gme/documents/Peel/Time%2 0Management.ppt هدف از مدیریت زمان (خود) تنش= مدیریت خوب زمان، می تواند از مقدار زیادی ا ز تنش هایی را که با آنها مواجه هستیم بکاهد. تعادل= مدیریت زمان خوب ما را قادر می سازد، در زندگی تعادل بیشتر و زمان و انرژی کافی هم برای کار و هم برای خانه و هم برای خانواده خود داشته باشیم.

7 Purpose of Time (Self) Management  Productivity=If you can become more effective with your time, you automatically increase your productivity.  Goals=To make progress toward achieving your personal and professional goals, you need available time. Nothing can be done when you’re out of time. Mackenzie, 1997 uthscsa.edu/gme/documents/Peel/Time%2 0Management.ppt

8 Purpose of Time (Self) Management  Productivity=If you can become more effective with your time, you automatically increase your productivity.  Goals=To make progress toward achieving your personal and professional goals, you need available time. Nothing can be done when you’re out of time. Mackenzie, 1997 uthscsa.edu/gme/documents/Peel/Time%2 0Management.ppt هدف از مدیریت زمان ( خود ) کارایی = اگر شما بتوانید از وقت خود بیشتر استفاده کنید، آنگاه به صورت خودکار کارایی خود را افزایش می دهید. اهداف = برای ایجاد پیشرفت در جهت دستیابی به اهداف شخصی و حرفه ای خودتان، شما نیاز به زمان دارید. هیچ کاری در صورتی که وقت انجامش را ندارید، به ثمر نخواهد رسید.

9 The 80/20 Rule (Pareto Principle)  Theory of predictable imbalance  The relationship between input and output is rarely, if ever, balanced.  20% of your efforts produce 80% of the results. Vaccaro, 2000 uthscsa.edu/gme/documents/Peel/Time%2 0Management.ppt

10 The 80/20 Rule (Pareto Principle)  Theory of predictable imbalance  The relationship between input and output is rarely, if ever, balanced.  20% of your efforts produce 80% of the results. Vaccaro, 2000 uthscsa.edu/gme/documents/Peel/Time%2 0Management.ppt قاعده 80/20 ( اصل پارتو ) تئوری پیش بینی عدم تعادل ارتباط بین ورودی و خروجی به ندرت بالانس می شود. 20% تلاشهای شما 80% نتایج را ایجاد می کنند.

11 The 80/20 Rule Where are you?  You’re in your 80% if you’re:  Working on tasks other people want you to, but have no investment in them  Frequently working on tasks labeled “urgent”  Spending time on tasks you’re not good at  Complaining all of the time uthscsa.edu/gme/documents/Peel/Time%2 0Management.ppt

12 The 80/20 Rule Where are you?  You’re in your 80% if you’re:  Working on tasks other people want you to, but have no investment in them  Frequently working on tasks labeled “urgent”  Spending time on tasks you’re not good at  Complaining all of the time uthscsa.edu/gme/documents/Peel/Time%2 0Management.ppt قاعده 80/20 شما کجا قرار دارید؟ شما در 80% تان هستید اگر : روی فعالیتهایی که دیگران از شما می خواهند کار کنید و هیچ سرمایه گذاری روی آنها انجام نداده اید. بیشتر فعالیتهای شما اولویت دار و فوری باشد. روی فعالیتهایی که روی آن تبحر کافی ندارید، وقت صرف کنید. همیشه به دنبال را های بهتر باشید.

13 The 80/20 Rule Where are you?  You’re in your 20% if you’re:  Engaged in activities that advance your overall purpose in life  Doing things you have always wanted to do or that make you feel good about yourself  Working on tasks you don’t like, but you’re doing them know they related to the bigger picture  Smiling uthscsa.edu/gme/documents/Peel/Time%2 0Management.ppt

14 The 80/20 Rule Where are you?  You’re in your 20% if you’re:  Engaged in activities that advance your overall purpose in life  Doing things you have always wanted to do or that make you feel good about yourself  Working on tasks you don’t like, but you’re doing them know they related to the bigger picture  Smiling uthscsa.edu/gme/documents/Peel/Time%2 0Management.ppt قاعده 80/20  شما کجا قرار دارید؟  شما در 20% تان هستید اگر :  در فعالیتهایی قدم بگذارید که اهداف کلی شما را در زندگی به پیش می برند.  کارهایی را انجام دهید که همیشه خواسته اید انجامشان دهید یا اینکه از انجامشان حس خوبی نسبت به خودتان پیدا می کنید.  فعالیت هایی را انجام دهید که دوست ندارید، اما می دانید که انجام آنها در جهت اهداف بزرگتر هستند.  تبسم

15 Implementing the 80/20 Rule  Read less. Identify the 20% of the journals you get that are most valuable.  Keep current. Make yourself aware of new technological innovations.  Remember the basics. Let your ethics and values guide your decision making, and you’re bound to end up focusing on your 20%. uthscsa.edu/gme/documents/Peel/Time%2 0Management.ppt

16 Implementing the 80/20 Rule  Read less. Identify the 20% of the journals you get that are most valuable.  Keep current. Make yourself aware of new technological innovations.  Remember the basics. Let your ethics and values guide your decision making, and you’re bound to end up focusing on your 20%. uthscsa.edu/gme/documents/Peel/Time%2 0Management.ppt اجرای قانون 80/20 کمتر بخوانید. 20% نشریاتی را که به نظرتان با ارزش ترین هستند شناسایی کنید. به روز باشید. از نوآوری های تکنولوژیکی آگاه باشید. اصول را به یاد آورید. بگذارید اخلاق و ارزشهای شما راهنمای تصمیم گیری شماباشد، و شما ملزم به این هستید که به تمرکز بر روی 20% خاتمه دهید.

17 Balance the conflicting demands Leisure Earning money and job-hunting Lead to a build up of stress Page17 Why use Time Management Skills?

18 چرا از مهارت های مدیریت زمان استفاده می کنیم؟ ايجاد تعادل درخواسته های متضاد ايجادفرصت و فراغت کسب درآمد و دست یابی به شغل مديريت جهت افزايش تدريجي دراسترس ( كنترل استرس ) درشكل مثلث : مديريت زمان دقت در انتخاب است چه بايد بكنيم چه وقت بايد انجام دهيم چطور بايد آن را انجام دهيم Page18

19 1. Carry a schedule and record all your thoughts, conversations and activities for a week. 2. Any activity or conversation that’s important to your success should have a time assigned to it. 3. Plan to spend at least 50 percent of your time engaged in the thoughts, activities and conversations that produce most of your results. 4. Schedule time for interruptions. 5. Take the first 30 minutes of every day to plan your day. 6. Take five minutes before every call and task to decide what result you want to attain. 7. Put up a “Do not disturb” sign when you absolutely have to get work done. Page19 10 Effective Time Management Skills

20 10 مهارت موثر برای مدیریت زمان 1. ايجاد يك جدول و تمام افكارت،گفتگوها وفعاليت هاي خود را براي يك هفته ثبت كن. 2. هر گونه فعالیت و یا گفتگو يي كه براي آن زمان اختصاص داده شده براي موفقيت شما مهم است. 3. برنامه ريزي كنيد تا كمتر از 50% زمان شما درگير افكار،فعاليت عاوگفتگوها شود تا نتايج بيشتري براي شما حاصل شود. 4. جدول زمان بندی برای وقفه ها داشته باشيد. 5. نابتداي هرروز 30 دقيقه براي برنامه ريزي آن روز داشته باشيد. 6. پنج دقيقه قبل از هر تماس و وظيفه اي فكر كنيد و تصميم بگيريد به چه نتيجه اي ميخواهيد برسيد. 7. نوشته " مزاحم نشوید " را موقعي كه مشغول كاري هستيد قرار دهيد. Page20

21 8. Practice not answering the phone just because it’s ringing and e- mails just because they show up. 9. Block out other distractions like Facebook and other forms of social media unless you use these tools to generate business. 10. Remember that it’s impossible to get everything done. Page21 10 Effective Time Management Skills(cont’d)

22 10 مهارت موثر برای مدیریت زمان 8 تمرين كنيد به تلفن ها پاسخ گو نباشيد چون فقط زنگ مي خورد ويا به ايميل ها چون فقط نشان داده ميشوند. 9. تمام عوامل حواس پرتي مانند فيس بوك و رسانه هاي اجتماعي را بلوك كنيد ( استفاده نكنيد ). 10. به یاد داشته باشید که این غیر ممکن است كه همه چيز ( همه كارها ) انجام شود. Page22

23 Technique #1: Make and use lists. 1. My Schedule. This is for the entire year, day by day. 2. Things-to-Do List. This is a basic “Things-to-Do” list organized by month, week, and day 3. People-to-Call List. My third list is a “People-to-Call” list, also prioritized alphabetically. 4. Conference Planner. Technique #2: Tickle the memory with tickler files Technique #3: Minimize meetings Technique #4: Block your time Technique #5: Profit from “odd lot” time Page23 5 Time Management Techniques

24 5 تکنیک برای مدیریت زمان تکنیک # 1: يك ليست بسازيد و ازآن استفاده كنيد. 1. برنامه من. براي كل سال است و بصورت روز به روز،؟ 2. چیزهایی – ليست انجام كار - اين براساس “ چيزهايي كه بايد انجام شود “ سازماندهي شده و بصورت ماهانه،هفتگي وروزانه ميباشد 3. ليست تلفن مردم _ سومين ليست من ليست تلفن مردم براساس حروف الفبا 4. برنامه ريزي كنفرانس ها تکنیک # 2: غلغلک دادن حافظه با فایل های تحریک کننده قمقمه کوچک تکنیک # 3: به حداقل رساندن جلسات تکنیک # 4: بلوک كردن وقت خود ( از هدر رفتن آن جلوگيري كنيم ) تکنیک # 5: منفعت بردن از زمان ” بسيار كوچك “( ازحداقل زمان استفاده كردن ) Page24

25 The Urgent/Important Matrix What Are "Urgent" and "Important"Activities? – Important activities have an outcome that leads to the achievement of your goals, whether these are professional or personal. – Urgent activities demand immediate attention, and are often associated with the achievement of someone else's goals.

26 ماتریس مهم / فوری فعالیت های " فوری " و " مهم " چه هستند؟ –فعالیت های مهم یک نتیجه دارند که منجر به دستیابی به اهدافتان می شود، خواه شخصی باشد یا حرفه ای. فعالیت های فوری خواستار توجه فوری است و اغلب با تحقق اهداف فرد دیگری در ارتباط است.

27 The Urgent/Important Matrix نحوه استفاده از ابزار ماتریس مهم / فوری یک روش قدرتمند از تفکر درباره اولویت ها است استفاده ار آن به شما کمک می کند بطور طبیعی بر روی فعالیتهای فوری تمرکز کنید به طوری که شما می توانید زمانتان را به اندازه کافی جهت تمرکز برروی آنچه واقعا مهم است نگه دارید

28 Entrepreneurship

29 a way of thinking, reasoning, and acting that is: – opportunity obsessed – holistic in approach – and leadership balanced 29

30 Entrepreneurship Some advantages – You are your own boss – Enjoy the profits from you efforts – Sense of pride in your business – Flexibility in your work schedule 30

31 E-Entrepreneurship 31

32 Definition An e-entrepreneur is defined as an individual willing to take the risk of investing time and money in an electronic business that has the potential to make a profit or incur a loss. 32

33 Virtual Business Does not have a material space designed to receive customers Transacts most of its business online Can deal with customers from any location that offers Internet capability 33

34 Components of an E-Business Site Web site design Content Web host Security and/or firewalls Search site submission On-site search engine Database software 34

35 Additional Features Needed for Online Payment Product catalog Shopping cart Merchant account provider Alternative payment options Order fulfillment Customer service notification Customer FAQs 35

36 Global E-Entrepreneurship Agreement The U.S. and 29 other countries are members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). 36

37 Global E-Entrepreneurship Agreement Guidelines Fair business, advertising, and marketing practices Enough information to allow consumers to make informed choices, including disclosures about online businesses, their goods and services, and the terms and conditions of sale Clear processes for confirming transactions Secure payment mechanisms 37

38 Global E-Entrepreneurship Agreement Guidelines (continued) Timely and affordable dispute resolution and redress processes Privacy protection Consumer and business education International government cooperation 38

39 Web Site Checklist 39

40 Myths of E-Entrepreneurship E-entrepreneurship is a no-brainer. E-entrepreneurship is cheap. The best price is always online. E-commerce will kill traditional retail. E-entrepreneurships make an obscene amount of money. E-entrepreneurship is not safe. 40

41 Myths of E-Entrepreneurship E-entrepreneurship success depends on the right technology. Getting products to consumers is an e- entrepreneur ’ s biggest cost. Most Web consumers are “ young. ” If a product or service can be sold, it can be sold on the Web. Everyone else is selling online. (continued) 41

42 15 Most Common E-Entrepreneurship Mistakes 1.Trying to sell the wrong product online 2.Misjudging the web site ’ s potential 3.Forgetting that a first impression can only be made once 4.Making the site too complicated 5.Using a complicated navigation system 6.Forgetting to list your phone number 7.Supporting only one browser 8.Featuring out-of-date content 42

43 15 Most Common E-Entrepreneurship Mistakes (continued) 9.Requiring excessive download times 10.Ignoring customer service 11.Not validating the functionality of your site 12.Not merging your web site with your conventional business 13.Not promoting the site 14.Using spam promotion 15.Failing to deliver products 43

44 E-Entrepreneurship in the Business Plan The e-entrepreneurship components of the business planning process integrate your Internet site and your basic business model. They should address web site planning, development, marketing, legal, financial, management, and special considerations. 44

45 E-Entrepreneurship in the Business Plan They should be designed to ensure that your Internet content reaches the right customer while leveraging the full value of the Internet as a marketing tool. 45

46 The Deadly Mistakes of Entrepreneurship Management mistakes Lack of experience Poor financial control Weak marketing efforts Failure to develop a strategic plan Uncontrolled growth 46

47 The Deadly Mistakes of Entrepreneurship Poor location Improper inventory control Incorrect pricing Inability to make the “entrepreneurial transition” 47

48 Mind map

49 What is a Mind Map A Mind Map is similar to a road map to help you on your journey. It will provide an overview or overall picture of a particular subject and help you plan your route or choices. The Mind Map stores large amounts of information efficiently 49

50 What is a Mind Map discovering that the final Mind Map is not only easy to read and look at, but also uses the potential of the brain in a very exciting way. It helps develop new brain skills, which are often overlooked by traditional teaching methods. 50

51 Characteristics main of Mind Maps The main idea is the central image: Branches radiate from the main Idea The key Image is printed on the branch Twigs are the secondary thoughts All the branches form a nodal structure 51

52 A Brief Summary: The Importance of Mind Mapping! Mind mapping is one of the very best methods to optimize ones learning capacities and understanding of how the elements of complex structures are connected. Pag e:5252 reference :http://www.mapyourmind.com/ebook.pdf

53 A Brief Summary: The Importance of Mind Mapping! Mind mapping یکی از بهترین روش ها برای بهینه سازی ظرفیت یادگیری و درک چگونگی عناصر ساختار پیچیده متصل بهم است. Pag e:5353 reference :http://www.mapyourmind.com/ebook.pdf

54 7 Steps to Making a Mind Map 1.Start in the CENTRE of a blank page turned sideways. Why? Because starting in the centre gives your Brain freedom to spread out in all directions and to express itself more freely and naturally. 2.Use an IMAGE or PICTURE for your central idea. Why? Because an image is worth a thousand words and helps you use your Imagination. A central image is more interesting, keeps you focussed, helps you concentrate, and gives your Brain more of a buzz! Page: 54 reference :

55 7 Steps to Making a Mind Map شروع در مرکز از یک صفحه خالی چرخیده شده به یک سمت. چرا؟ چون با شروع در مرکز صفحه جهت گسترش در همه جهات و برای بیان آزادانه و طبیعی تر آزادی ذهنی به شما داده می شود. استفاده از یک تصویر و یا عکس برای ایده اصلی تان. چرا؟ چون یک تصویر ارزش هزار کلمه را دارد و کمک کی کند به شما برای بکار گیری تصورتتان. یک تصویر مرکزی بسیار جلب توجه می کند ، تمرکز تان را نگه می دارد، کمک می کند تمرکز کنید و به ذهن شما بیشتر از یک همهمه اطلاعات می دهد. Page: 55 reference :

56 7 Steps to Making a Mind Map 3.Use COLOURS throughout. Why? Because colours are as exciting to your Brain as are images. Colour adds extra vibrancy and life to your Mind Map, adds tremendous energy to your Creative Thinking, and is fun! 4.CONNECT your MAIN BRANCHES to the central image and connect your second- and third-level branches to the first and second levels, etc. Why? Because your Brain works by association. It likes to link two (or three, or four) things together. If you connect the branches, you will understand and remember a lot more easily. Page: 56 reference :

57 7 Steps to Making a Mind Map استفاده از رنگ ها در سراسر در همه جا. چرا ؟ چون رنگها مانند تصاویر برای ذهن شما هیجان انگیز هستند. رنگها جنب و جوش و حیات فوق العاده ای را را به Mind Map شما اضافه می کنند. انرژی فوق العاده ای را به تفکر خلاقانه شما اضافه می کنند و این لذت بخش است. اتصال سرشاخه های اصلی به تصویر مرکزی و اتصال سرشاخه های دوم و سوم به سطوح اول و دوم و غیره. چرا؟ چون مغز شما با ارتباطات کار میکند. این شبیه ارتباط دو چیز به همدیگر است. اگر شما به شاخه ها متصل بشید شما بسیار ساده تر می توانید متوجه بشوید و به خاطر بسپارید. Page: 57 reference :

58 7 Steps to Making a Mind Map شاخه ها را منحنی کنید نه بصورت راست. چرا؟ چون خطوط راست چیزی نداند و برای ذهن شما خسته کننده هستند. از یک کلمه کلیدی در هر خط استفاده کنید. چون کلید واژه های تکی به ذهن شما قدرت و انعطاف می دهد در همه جا از تصاویر استفاده کنید. چون هر تصویر مانند تصویر مرکزی به اندازه هزار کلمه ارزش دارد. چون اگر شما تنها 10 تصویر در Mind Map داشته باشید این در واقع به اندازه 1000 عبارت از یک یادداشت است Page: 58 reference :

59 Benefits and Uses We can use mind maps for : – Note taking – Brainstorming (individually or in groups) – Problem solving – Studying and memorization – Planning – Researching and consolidating information from multiple sources – Presenting information – Gaining insight on complex subjects – Jogging your creativity Page: 59 reference :

60 مزایا و موارد استفاده ما از mind maps می توان استفاده کنیم برای : –اخذ یادداشت –طوفان مغزی ( به صورت جداگانه و یا در گروه ) –حل مشکلات –مطالعه و حفظ کردن –برنامه ریزی –تحقیق و تحکیم اطلاعات از منابع مختلف –ارائه اطلاعات –به دست آوردن بینش در مورد موضوعات پیچیده –بروز خلاقیت شما بطور آرام ( آهسته - بدون استرس ) Page: 60 reference :

61 10 Tips for Highly Effective Mind Mapping Sessions If you follow these 10 simple tips, you should find your mindmapping sessions to me radically improved. – 1. Eliminate Environmental Distractions – 2. Eliminate all paper / digital distractions – 3. Start with a good question or idea – 4. Start with that goal, but feel free to deviate from it – 5. Leave yourself enough room to expand – 6. Don’t try to make it too clean or professional – 7. Write down every semi-decent thought or idea that comes to you – 8. Color code, doodle, scratch out and do whatever else you want to your brainstorm – 9. If you need to, familiarize yourself with the materials before your session begins – 10. Get started right now Page: 61 reference :

62 10 نکته برای بسیار موثر جلسات Mind Map اگر شما به دنبال این 10 نکته ساده باشید ، شما باید بتوانید Mind Map را پیدا کنید از بین بردن سرگرمی های محیط اطراف –حذف کاغذها / سرگرمی های دیجیتالی –با یک سوال یا ایده خوب شروع کنید –شروع با این هدف، اما در صورت تمایل به انحراف از آن –دیدگاهتان را به اندازه کافی گسترش دهید –لازم نیست سعی کنید حرفه ای بسیازید –هر فکر یا ایده شبه مناسب و معقول را بنوسید –کد رنگ، طرح لوگوی، انجام هر چیز دیگری که می تواند شما را به طوفان فکری برساند. –اگر لازم است قبل از شروع جلسه خودتان را با موارد آشنا کنید –همین حالا می تونید شروع کنید Page: 62 reference :

63 PROBLEMS – LINEAR NOTES 1.Obscure Key Words 2.Boring 3.Waste time 4.Unnecessary noting 5.Reading unnecessary notes 6.Re reading unnecessary notes 7.Searching for Key Words 63

64 PROBLEMS – LINEAR NOTES 1.Obscure Key Words 2.Boring 3.Waste time 4.Unnecessary noting 5.Reading unnecessary notes 6.Re reading unnecessary notes 7.Searching for Key Words 64 مشکلات در عنوانهای خطوط 1. مبهم بودن کلید واژه ها 2. خسته کننده شدن کار 3. اتلاف وقت 4. یادداشت برداری غیر ضروری 5. خواندن یادداشت های غیر ضروری 6. بازخوانی یادداشت های غیر ضروری 7. جستجو برای کلید واژه ها

65 65

66 Busines plan

67 Four Principle Strategy Issues 1)overall company strategy: overall approach to producing and selling products and services, goals for maximizing success, what is your guiding principle? 2)mission statement: a statement that encapsulates your company ’ s values and overall purpose in life 3)technology/information assessment: ability to use technology and manage information 4)management team: who determines and implements strategy (must have credibility) 67

68 1) Overall Strategy: past, present and future issues Discuss your company ’ s history, when it was started, by whom, has strategy changed from that of the past, if so, why? Include fundamentals: sales, profits, number of employees, locations What is status of company today (snapshot)? Strengths and Weaknesses: mention these, you will appear more honest, open-minded 68

69 Overall Strategy: future prospects Also known as the “ objectives ” section easy to project good growth, harder to make it believable if you had a history of growth, then it is more believable can sometimes use external trends (e.g., growth in another area) to justify new direction start-up companies can more easily speak to growth because they have bad experiences to dispel optimism people starting the business can lend credibility to the plan if they, themselves, are credible 69

70 2) The Mission Statement Represents a more generalized and idealistic vision of the company ’ s purpose in life often, these visions are a little too lofty many times it is more than adequate just to improve people ’ s lives mission statements also establish achievable goals often focus on three issues: product, economic and social objectives 70

71 3) Technology/Information Assessment Greater or higher technology allows small companies to compete on an even playing field with larger ones used to achieve competitive advantages with proper technology, customers can be serviced more quickly and efficiently than competitors technology must be integrated into the company ’ s most important operations examples? 71

72 4) The Management Team This is the critical link in making the strategy section believable quality of the management team should speak for itself because people are the key to determining success two most common problems: one-man-band syndrome, everyone from same background hard to expand if you have a dictator successful management teams require diversity of training and expertise 72

73 Decision

74 Decision Making Techniques 74

75 Decision Making Techniques Decision making techniques vary according to the nature of the problem or topic, decision maker, situation, and decision making method or process. 75

76 Decision Making Techniques 1. Group decision making: A number of studies have shown that professional people do not function well under micromanagement. Group problem solving casts the manager in the role of facilitators and consultant. Compare to individual decision making, group can provide more input and better decision. 76

77 Decision Making Techniques 2. Nominal group technique (NGT) -It is eliciting written questions, ideas, and reactions from group members. Consists of : -Silently generating ideas in written. -Round-robin presentation by group members of their ideas on a flip chart. -Discussing each recorded idea and evaluate. -Voting individually on priority ideas, with group solution being derived mathematically through rank ordering. 77

78 Decision Making Techniques 3. Delphi technique It is judgments on a particular topic are systematically gathered from participants who do not meet face to face. Useful when expert opinions are needed. 78

79 Decision Making Techniques 4. Statistical aggregation: Individuals are polled( قرعة (regarding a specific problem and their responses are tallied. like Delphi technique, does not require a group meeting. no opportunity for group members to strength their interpersonal tie or interaction. 79

80 Decision Making Techniques 5. Brainstorming The idea generating technique wherein a Group members meet and generate diverse ideas about the nature, cause, definition, or solution to a problem without regard to questions of feasibility or practicality. Through this technique, individuals are encouraged to identify a wide range of ideas. Usually, one individual is assigned to record the ideas on a chalkboard. Brainstorming may be used at any stage of the decision- making process, but it is most effective at the beginning, once a problem has been stated. 80

81 Brainstorming Brainstorming is most effective for simple, well-defined problems. It encourages enthusiasm and competitiveness among group members in generating ideas. It also prevents group members from feeling hopeless about the range of possibilities in a given situation. 81

82 Brainstorming Two methods are more frequently used. First: is the structured method (known as the round-robin) where each, member is asked to put forward an idea. 82

83 Decision Making Techniques The other technique: is unstructured and is known as free-wheeling, in which ideas are produced and expressed by anyone at any time. It is enjoyable but are often unsuccessful because members being to critique ideas. 83

84 Decision Making Techniques 6. fishbone diagram (causes and effect) Is drawn after a brainstorming session, the central problem is visualized as the head of the fish, with the skeleton divided into branches showing contributing causes of different parts of the problem. 84

85 Work system ED Overcrowding Resources and facilities lack of availability of ground ambulance transportation limited resources of ED in the form of medical Lack of supplies and medications Unavailability of operating room time shortage of physical plant space Ancillary services not same hours as ED Lack of availability of 24-hour laboratory tests Increased medical records documentation requirements Increase length of stay due to waiting for test Delay in the services provided by radiology, lab. and ancillary services Fishbone diagram (Cause and effect) Delay in treatment and prolonged patient stay in ED No system available for supervising &evaluating work aduate%20courses/de cision%20making.ppt 85

86 Decision Making Techniques 8. Pareto Analysis  Selecting the Most Important Changes To Make.  It uses the Pareto principle - the idea that by doing 20% of work you can generate 80% of the advantage of doing the entire job  is a formal technique for finding the changes that will give the biggest benefits. How to use tool: 1.write out a list of the changes you could make 2. Then score the items or groups. 3.The first change to tackle is the one that has the highest score 86

87 Decision Making Techniques 9. Paired Comparison Analysis Working Out the Relative Importance of Different Options. helps you to work out the importance of a number of options relative to each other. It is particularly useful where you do not have objective data to base this on. easy to choose the most important problem to solve, or select the solution that will give you the greatest advantage. 87

88 Paired Comparison Analysis How to use tool: list your options. Then draw up a grid with each option as both a row and a column header. use this grid to compare each option with each other option decide which of the two options is most important 88

89 Decision Making Techniques 10. PMI ('Plus/Minus/Implications' ) Weighing the Pros and Cons of a Decision. How to use : focused on selecting a course of action from a range of options. check that it is going to improve the situation draw up a table headed up with: 'Plus', 'Minus', In the column underneath 'Plus', write down all the positive results of taking the action. Underneath 'Minus' write down all the negative effects. In the 'Implications' column write down the implications and possible outcomes of taking the action, whether positive or negative. 89

90 Decision Making Techniques 11. Six thinking hats Looking at a Decision from All Points of View It is used to look at decisions from a number of important perspectives. This forces you to move outside your habitual thinking style, and helps you to get a more rounded view of a situation. '6 Thinking Hats'6 Thinking Hats‘ How to the Tool: Each 'Thinking Hat' is a different style of thinking. 90

91 6 Thinking Hats White Hat: With this thinking hat you focus on the data available. Look at the information you have, and see what you can learn from it. Red Hat: you look at problems using intuition, gut reaction, and emotion. Try to understand the responses of people who do not fully know your reasoning. Black Hat: look at all the bad points of the decision. 91

92 6 Thinking Hats Yellow Hat: The yellow hat helps you to think positively. It is the optimistic viewpoint that helps you to see all the benefits of the decision and the value in it Green Hat: The Green Hat stands for creativity. This is where you can develop creative solutions to a problem Blue Hat: The Blue Hat stands for process control. This is the hat worn by people chairing meetings. When running into difficulties because ideas are running dry, they may direct activity into Green Hat thinking. When contingency plans are needed, they will ask for Black Hat thinking, 92

93 Decision Making Techniques 12. Decision grid: A decision making process grid is a matrix for comparing multiple options when there are also several criteria to consider. It has many names, including Pugh matrix, solution matrix, decision making matrix, decision grid, problem selection grid. It is a rational model and is also classed as a visual decision tool.rational modelvisual decision tool When the complexity of the decision increases these decision making tools and techniques can prove useful. Especially as the number of options and criteria increase. 93

94 Different Kinds of Decision Makers 1.The indecisive: as described below: – Inaction: sit on it and not doing anything about it for fear of opening a can of worms or get bad news: procrastination – Analysis-paralysis, but procrastinate the decision-making. – Expend too much effort on trivial problems, i.e. those that do not require full-blown analysis. – Analyse but don't decide until few alternatives are left. Wait till the very last minute to decide. – Biased by other people's opinions – Sunk-cost bias, often to justify less effort or payoff. Slide: 94 ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY ECAMPUS EMBA

95 انواع مختلف تصميم گيرندگان 1. غیر قطعی : Slide: 95 ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY ECAMPUS EMBA

96 Different Kinds of Decision Makers 2.Gut feel, no analysis at all, just go for it. Already convinced without enough evidence. 3. Decision making by consensus, by taking a survey of what everyone else thinks. 4.The rational decision maker (uses all the techniques above), good decisions does not equal good outcomes. 5. Wait and see - until there's only one left or panic sets in. 6.Satisficer: what is good enough but not the best Slide: 96 ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY ECAMPUS EMBA

97 Different Kinds of Decision Makers 2.Gut feel, no analysis at all, just go for it. Already convinced without enough evidence. 3. تصمیم گیری به اتفاق آراء 4. تصمیم گیرنده منطقی 5. صبر کن و ببین 6.Satisficer: چه چیزی به اندازه کافی خوب است، اما نه بهترین نیست Slide: 97 ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY ECAMPUS EMBA

98 Different Kinds of Decision Makers 7.Optimiser: optimisation, aims for the best. 8. Value-focussed Alternative driven: deal prone, variety seeking. 9. Learner vs the abdicator. The learner wants to understand. 10.The abdicator pays someone else to decide, to do it Slide: 98 ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY ECAMPUS EMBA

99 Different Kinds of Decision Makers 7.Optimiser: بهینه سازی. 8. Value-focussed Alternative driven: deal prone, variety seeking. تنوع طلبی 9. Learner vs the abdicator. یادگیرنده می خواهد بفهمد 10.The abdicator pays someone else to decide, to do it Slide: 99 ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY ECAMPUS EMBA

100  Individual decision making  Group decision making  Organizational decision making  Meta organizational decision making 100

101  Individual decision making  Group decision making  Organizational decision making  Meta organizational decision making 101 تصمیم گیری فردی تصمیم گیری گروهی تصمیم گیری سازمانی تصمیم گیری فراسازمانی

102 What do we want to achieve? What are our goals? What are the main opportunities and risks we face? What competitive strategy should we pursue? 102

103 What do we want to achieve? What are our goals? What are the main opportunities and risks we face? What competitive strategy should we pursue? 103 کارهایی که مدیران باید برای تصمیم گیری انجام دهند. طراحی به چه چیزی می خواهیم دست بیابیم؟ اهداف ما چیست؟ فرصت های اصلی و خطرات پیش روی ما چه می باشند؟ چه استراتژی رقابتی را باید دنبال کنیم؟

104 What are the main tasks we have to accomplish? How should we divide up the work that needs to be done? Should I make these decisions or let subordinates make them? How should we make sure the work is coordinated? 104

105 What are the main tasks we have to accomplish? How should we divide up the work that needs to be done? Should I make these decisions or let subordinates make them? How should we make sure the work is coordinated? 105 کارهایی که مدیران باید برای تصمیم گیری انجام دهند. سازماندهی وظایف اصلی ما برای به انجام رساندن چه هستند؟ تقسیم کاری چگونه باید انجام شود؟ آیا باید این تصمیم گیری هارا خودمان انجام دهیم یا به زیردستان اجازه دهیم؟ چگونه باید مطمئن شویم که کار هماهنگ است؟

106 What leadership style should I use in this situation? Why is this employee doing what he or she is doing? How should I motivate this employee? How can I get this team to perform better? 106

107 What leadership style should I use in this situation? Why is this employee doing what he or she is doing? How should I motivate this employee? How can I get this team to perform better? 107 کارهایی که مدیران باید برای تصمیم گیری انجام دهند. رهبری چه سبک رهبری باید در این وضعیت استفاده کنم؟ چرا این کارمند کارهایی را که دیگری انجام داده است انجام میدهد؟ چگونه میتوانم در این کارمند ایجاد انگیزه کنم؟ چگونه می توانم این تیم را به بهترشدن راهنمایی کنم؟

108 How am I going to control this activity? Are the goals on which these controls are based out of date? Does this performance deviation merit corrective action? 108

109 How am I going to control this activity? Are the goals on which these controls are based out of date? Does this performance deviation merit corrective action? 109 کارهایی که مدیران باید برای تصمیم گیری انجام دهند. کنترل چگونه میتوانم این فعالیت را کنترل کنم ؟ آیا اهدافی که در این کنترل ها دنبال میکنم به روز هستند؟ آیا این شایستگی انحراف ازعملکرد ، اقدامی اصلاحی است؟

110 – Well-Structured Problems - straightforward, familiar, and easily defined – Programmed Decisions - used to address structured problems – minimize the need for managers to use discretion – facilitate organizational efficiency 110

111 – Well-Structured Problems - straightforward, familiar, and easily defined – Programmed Decisions - used to address structured problems – minimize the need for managers to use discretion – facilitate organizational efficiency 111 انواع مشکلات و تصمیم گیری ها مشکلات خوش ساخت مشکلات خوش ساخت - ساده، آشنا و به راحتی تعریف شده تصمیم گیری برنامه ریزی شده تصمیم گیری برنامه ریزی شده - برای رسیدگی به مشکلات ساخت یافته استفاده می شود  به حداقل رساندن نیاز به استفاده از اختیارات مدیران  تسهیل بهره وری سازمانی

112 – Poorly-Structured Problems - new, unusual problems for which information is ambiguous or incomplete – Nonprogrammed Decisions - used to address poorly- structured problems produce a custom-made response more frequent among higher-level managers – Procedure, Rule, & Policy 112

113 – Poorly-Structured Problems - new, unusual problems for which information is ambiguous or incomplete – Nonprogrammed Decisions - used to address poorly- structured problems produce a custom-made response more frequent among higher-level managers – Procedure, Rule, & Policy 113 انواع مشکلات و تصمیم گیری ها مشکلات کم ساخت یافته - مشکلات جدید وغیر معمول که اطلاعات آنها مبهم و یا ناقص است تصمیم گیری های غیر برنامه ریزی شده - برای رسیدگی به مشکلات کم ساخت یافته استفاده می شود  تولید یک پاسخ سفارشی  در میان مدیران سطح بالاتر شایعتر است دستورالعمل ، قانون، و سیاست

114 Programmed Decisions Nonprogrammed Decisions Level in Organization Top Lower Well-structured Ill-structured Type of Problem 114

115 Programmed Decisions تصمیمات ساخت یافته Nonprogrammed Decisions تصمیمات غیرساخت یافته Level in Organization Top Lower Well-structured Ill-structured Type of Problem 115

116 Group Decision Making The goal in group decision making is to ensure that the group makes the best decision they can; based on all the information they have; as quickly as possible; with the right level of participation and commitment. However, often this goal is not achieved. Many decisions made in groups are neither thoughtful nor inclusive. Group decision making takes time and is not appropriate for every decision. Including people in decision making will strengthen their understanding of the rationale for the decision, build commitment and produce better quality decisions. One word of caution - if you have a complex or critical decision to make across a large or challenging group, use the services of a professional facilitator. Group dynamics can be challenging, and the following points are designed to help you work with a group more effectively, not train you in professional facilitation. (If need to make complex or critical decisions with large groups or there are diverse opinions and challenging dynamics bring in a professional facilitator to manage the process and support the leadership role.) 116

117 Group Decision Making The goal in group decision making is to ensure that the group makes the best decision they can; based on all the information they have; as quickly as possible; with the right level of participation and commitment. However, often this goal is not achieved. Many decisions made in groups are neither thoughtful nor inclusive. Group decision making takes time and is not appropriate for every decision. Including people in decision making will strengthen their understanding of the rationale for the decision, build commitment and produce better quality decisions. One word of caution - if you have a complex or critical decision to make across a large or challenging group, use the services of a professional facilitator. Group dynamics can be challenging, and the following points are designed to help you work with a group more effectively, not train you in professional facilitation. (If need to make complex or critical decisions with large groups or there are diverse opinions and challenging dynamics bring in a professional facilitator to manage the process and support the leadership role.) 117

118 تصمیم گیری گروهی 118 هدف در تصمیم گیری گروهی این است که مطمئن شوند گروه بهترین تصمیمی را که می تواند اتخاذ خواهد کرد ، بر اساس همه اطلاعاتی که دارند ، در سریع ترین زمان و با مناسبترین میزان مشارکت و پایبندی و تعهد. هر چند اغلب این هدف کسب نمی شود. بسیاری از تصمیماتی که در گروه اتخاذ می شود همه ابعاد را در نظر نمی گیرند. تصمیم گیری گروهی زمان بر است و برای بسیاری از تصمیم ها مناسب نیست. البته تصمیم گیری گروهی موجب نیرومند شدن درک عقلانی اشخاص برای تصمیم گیری ، ایجاد پای بندی و تعهد و تولید تصمیماتی با بهترین کیفیت می شود. لازمست در نظر داشته باشید که اگر شما تصمیم گیری پیچیده ای دارید ازخدمات مشاورین حرفه ای بهره گیری نمائید

119 AGM

120 Some Helpful Tips  Keeping the meeting in order How well the meeting runs depends on the people at the meeting, as well as the Chair. It makes a Chair’s job easier if the setting has agreed some basic rules about how they want the meetings to work – think about discussing this in your setting. https://czone.eastsussex.gov.uk/supportingchildren/childcare/support/Documents/t22_AGM_checklist.pdf 120

121 Some Helpful Tips  Decisions Before a decision is made, or you move on to another item, check that everyone has had their say. https://czone.eastsussex.gov.uk/supportingchildren/childcare/support/Documents/t22_AGM_checklist.pdf 121

122 Some Helpful Tips  Getting through the business Keep an eye on the time, and remind the rest of the meeting – e.g. “we need to move on if we are going to cover all the other business. We need to make a decision about...our options are.” https://czone.eastsussex.gov.uk/supportingchildren/childcare/support/Documents/t22_AGM_checklist.pdf 122

123 Some Helpful Tips  Drawing it all together – At the end of a discussion, summarise the main points and what has been decided. – If the meeting has agreed to do something, make sure you’ve also agreed who is going to do it. – Make sure the minute taker has had time to take down the decision and who will do it. https://czone.eastsussex.gov.uk/supportingchildren/childcare/support/Documents/t22_AGM_checklist.pdf 123

124 Some things to avoid  Some things to avoid  Don’t use your position to push your view  Don’t talk too much yourself  Don’t let someone talk a lot because they are your friend or you are a bit wary of them  Don’t ignore people who want to speak https://czone.eastsussex.gov.uk/supportingchildren/childcare/support/Documents/t22_AGM_checklist.pdf 124

125 NEGOTIATION

126 Why do negotiations fail? 1.make this a single-issue process - “price agreement or nothing” 2.be single-intention when considering a particular element, such as price, “this price, no lower/no higher or nothing” 3.horse trade - unless of course, you are selling a horse 4.unveil or limits too early - or bluff on those limits April

127 چرا مذاکرات با شکست روبه رو می شوند؟ 1- مذاکره را به صورت یک فرآیند ِ یک موضوعه درآورید برای مثال توافق بر سر قیمت یا عدم توافق. 2- زمانی که یک آیتم خاص را در نظر گرفتید نسبت به آن یک تمایل یک سویه اتخاذ نمایید، برای مثال در مورد قیمت یک قیمت ثابت، نه پایین تر ، نه بالاتر و نه هیچ گزینه ی دیگر در نظر داشته باشید. 3- تجارت اسب راه بیندازید مگر اینکه البته در حال فروش یک اسب باشید. 4- در اسرع وقت از مسائل رونمایی کنید و حدودی را تعیین نمایید یا اینکه با اغراق، محدودیتهای موجود را قوت بخشید. April

128 Stages of Negotiation 1.Preparation 2.Discussion 3.Clarification of goals 4.Negotiate towards a Win-Win outcome 5.Agreement 6.Implementation of a course of action 128

129 Stages of Negotiation 1.Preparation 2.Discussion 3.Clarification of goals 4.Negotiate towards a Win-Win outcome 5.Agreement 6.Implementation of a course of action 129 آماده سازی مذاکره روشن سازی اهداف مذاکره در جهت نتیجه برد – برد موافقت اجرا واقدام در یک دوره

130 Negotiation Styles Accommodating Avoiding Collaborating Competing Compromising 130

131 Negotiation Styles Accommodating Avoiding Collaborating Competing Compromising 131 روشهای مذاکره موافقت – تطبیق دوری کردن همکاری رقابت کردن توافق – مصالحه

132 Preparing for a Successful Negotiation Goals Trades Alternatives Relationships Expected outcomes The consequences Power Possible solutions 132

133 Preparing for a Successful Negotiation Goals Trades Alternatives Relationships Expected outcomes The consequences Power Possible solutions 133 اهداف داد و ستد چاره – شق دیگر – جایگزین ارتباط انتظار نتایج دست آورد – اثر قدرت نتایج امکان پذیر

134 11 Body Language Essentials for Negotiation If you aren't in control of your body language, it doesn't matter how much you've prepared for a negotiation. Here are some top tips. Commanding body language is an essential business tactic and has been studied for years--but mastering it can be a challenge 134

135 11 Body Language Essentials for Negotiation If you aren't in control of your body language, it doesn't matter how much you've prepared for a negotiation. Here are some top tips. Commanding body language is an essential business tactic and has been studied for years--but mastering it can be a challenge 135 مهم نیست که چقدر شما برای مذاکره آماده اید اگر کنترل زبان بدن شما در دستانتان نباشد تاکتیک فرماندهی زبان بدن برای کسب و کار ضروری است و سالها است که مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته است - اما تسلط بر آن می تواند یک چالش باشد

136  Mirror Their Actions  Nod Your Head  Pay Attention to Your Hands  Plant Your Feet  Relax Your Body Body Language Essentials for Negotiation

137  Mirror Their Actions  Nod Your Head  Pay Attention to Your Hands  Plant Your Feet  Relax Your Body Body Language Essentials for Negotiation نکات ضروری در زبان بدن: اعمال طرف مقابل را مانند اینه مونیتور کنید به حرکات دستانتان توجه کنید حرکات پاهایتان را تحخت نظر بگیرید آرامش بدن شما مهم ست

138  Remember to Smile  Keep an Open Posture  Hide Your Nerves  Keep a Poker Face  Show Your Patience  Hold Eye Contact Body Language Essentials for Negotiation

139  Remember to Smile  Keep an Open Posture  Hide Your Nerves  Keep a Poker Face  Show Your Patience  Hold Eye Contact Body Language Essentials for Negotiation به یاد داشته باش لبخند بزن اضطرابت را مخفی نگه دار پوکر فیس باش صبر و شکیبایی نشان بده نگه داشتن تماس چشمی با مخاطب

140 How to Make a Successful Negotiation 140 Negotiation exists in many situations in human life. Negotiation is not found only in businesses; it is often necessary to make decisions with friends, family and yourself. When you're skilled in negotiation, you can build trust and good relationships. The most important tips are here.

141 How to Make a Successful Negotiation 141

142 How to Make a Successful Negotiation Ask yourself questions.

143 How to Make a Successful Negotiation Be confident, courteous, calm, and curious.

144 How to Make a Successful Negotiation Come up with a win-win solution.

145 How to Make a Successful Negotiation Aspire for greatness.

146 How to Make a Successful Negotiation Think about your alternatives.

147 How to Make a Successful Negotiation Map your range.

148 How to Make a Successful Negotiation Map their range.

149 How to Make a Successful Negotiation Reach an agreement.

150 The Win/Win Strategy Preparing for the negation  Know your goals  Set floor and ceiling  Know your authority limits  Fix a meeting

151 The Win/Win Strategy Negotiating Process  Generating the best deal for you  Communicate directly to concerned stakeholder  Let them speak first  Setting wins conditions of the other party  Be trust worthy

152 The Win/Win Strategy The aftermath of negotiation  Nothing should be considered as a full and final in any agreement  Analyze the negotiation

153 BATNA The Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement; the lowest acceptable value (outcome) to an individual for a negotiated agreement. 153

154 Identify and Use your BATNA Know your BATNA –Focus on what you want to achieve and the different ways to accomplish this Strengthen your BATNA –Construct your BATNA to be more achievable, probable, or satisfying more of your interests –Improves your confidence during the negotiation Consider other side’s BATNA –Make their BATNA less attractive to them 154 U4bzAYXCtAbNyYDYDA&usg=AFQjCNGcb2HE_3w-4s2fSdQ5ag-EKOpQiw&bvm=bv ,d.Yms&cad=rja

155 Options and BATNA Note the difference 155 Options “Inside” the negotiation Created with counterpart Brainstorming session Potential solution(s) BOTH you and counterpart receive benefit BATNA “Outside” the negotiation Fall back position if negotiation fails Can be implemented unilaterally U4bzAYXCtAbNyYDYDA&usg=AFQjCNGcb2HE_3w-4s2fSdQ5ag-EKOpQiw&bvm=bv ,d.Yms&cad=rja


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