Presentation on theme: "School-wide Positive Behavior Support"— Presentation transcript:
1School-wide Positive Behavior Support Rob Horner, George Sugai, Celeste Rossetto DickeyUniversity of Oregon and University of Connecticut
2Goals/ Materials for today Provide a logic for considering school-wide Positive Behavior Support (PBS).Define the core features of School-wide PBSDefine the implementation approachDefine the outcomes achieved by schools that adopt school-wide PBS to criterionMaterialsPowerPoint slidesReferencesDiscipline matrix (curriculum matrix)Working Smarter matrixTeaching plan formats (and examples)
3Main MessagesSupporting social behavior is central to achieving academic gains.School-wide PBS is an evidence-based practice for building a positive social culture that will promote both social and academic success.Implementation of any evidence-based practice requires a more coordinated focus than typically expected.
4Six Basic Recommendations for Implementing PBIS Never stop doing what is already workingAlways look for the smallest change that will produce the largest effectAvoid defining a large number of goalsDo a small number of things wellDo not add something new without also defining what you will stop doing to make the addition possible.
5Six Basic Recommendations for Implementing PBIS Collect and use data for decision-makingAdapt any initiative to make it “fit” your school community, culture, context.FamiliesStudentsFacultyFiscal-political structureEstablish policy clarity before investing in implementationLAUSD.pptx
6Introductions Experience with School-wide PBS Has your school used this approach?Have you used the Team Checklist or EBS surveyDoes your team have a formal process for collecting and using office discipline referral data for decision-making?What challenges do you see related to student social behavior?Be specific with respect to age/grade level
7Logic for School-wide PBS Schools face a set of difficult challenges todayMultiple expectations (Academic accomplishment, Social competence, Safety)Students arrive at school with widely differing understandings of what is socially acceptable.Traditional “get tough” and “zero tolerance” approaches are insufficient.Individual student interventionsEffective, but can’t meet needSchool-wide discipline systemsEstablish a social culture within which both social and academic success is more likely
8Problem Behaviors Exist in every school Vary in intensity Insubordination, noncompliance, defiance, late to class, nonattendance, truancy, fighting, aggression, inappropriate language, social withdrawal, excessive crying, stealing, vandalism, property destruction, tobacco, drugs, alcohol, unresponsive, not following directions, inappropriate use of school materials, weapons, harassment 1, harassment 2, harassment 3, unprepared to learn, parking lot violation, irresponsible, trespassing, disrespectful, disrupting teaching, uncooperative, violent behavior, disruptive, verbal abuse, physical abuse, dress code, other, etc., etc., etc.Exist in every schoolVary in intensityAre associated w/ variety of contributing variablesAre concern in every community
9The Challenge80% of principals indicate that “too much time is spent dealing with disruptive and dangerous students.”National Association of Elementary School Principals, 199781% of teachers polled state that their worst behaved students are a barrier to effective education in their classroomsPublic Agenda, 2004
10The ChallengeMore than 50% of all crime in the United States is committed by 5-7% of youth between the ages of 10-20APA Commission on Youth Violence, 1993Each school day 100,000 students in the United States bring weapons to schoolWalker, 1994
11The Challenge7.4% of students surveyed reported that they had been threatened or injured by a weapon during the past year.4% reported that they missed at least one day of school because they felt unsafe.Center for Disease Control’s Center for Injury Prevention and Control (1997)
12The ChallengeExclusion and punishment are the most common responses to conduct disorders in schools.Lane & Murakami, (1987)Rose, (1988)Nieto, (1999)Sprick, Borgmeier, & Nolet, (2002)Exclusion and punishment are ineffective at producing long-term reduction in problem behaviorCostenbader & Markson (1998)
13The ChallengePunishing problem behaviors (without a proactive support system) is associated with increases in (a) aggression, (b) vandalism, (c) truancy, and (d) dropping out.Mayer, 1995Mayer & Sulzar-Azaroff, 1991Skiba & Peterson, 1999
14Research FindingsReviews of over 600 studies on how to reduce school discipline problems indicate that the least effective response to school violence are:Counseling (talking therapies)PsychotherapyPunishmentGottfredson, 1997Lipsey, 1991; 1992Tolan & Guerra, 1994Elliott, Hamburg, Williams, 1998
15Research FindingsThe same research reviews indicate that the most effective responses to school violence are:Social Skills TrainingAcademic RestructuringBehavioral InterventionsGottfredson, 1997Elliot, Hamburg, & Williams, 1998Tolan & Guerra, 1994Lipsey, 1991; 1992
16Fortunately, we have a science (ABA) that guides us to… Assess these situationsDevelop behavior intervention plans based on our assessmentMonitor student progress & make enhancementsAll in ways that can be culturally & contextually appropriateAxelrod, 1991;
17What is School-wide Positive Behavior Support? School-wide PBS is:A systems approach for establishing the social culture and individualized behavioral supports needed for schools to be effective learning environments for all students.Evidence-based features of SW-PBSPreventionDefine and teach positive social expectationsAcknowledge positive behaviorArrange consistent consequences for problem behaviorOn-going collection and use of data for decision-makingContinuum of intensive, individual interventions.Administrative leadership – Team-based implementation (Systems that support effective practices)
18Establishing a Social Culture Common LanguageMEMBERSHIPCommon ExperienceCommon Vision/Values
19School-wide PBS Supporting Social Competence, Academic Achievement and SafetySchool-wide PBSOUTCOMESSupportingStudentBehaviorSupportingDecisionMakingPRACTICESDATASWPBS: Four ElementsSWPBS builds from a focus on student Outcomes: academic achievement, social competence, and safety.SWPBS “Practices” are the behaviors of adults that affect how students perform. These are the daily, classroom, and on-going discipline practices of the schoolSWPBS “Systems” are the organizational decisions and structures that support effective STAFF Behavior. A major strength of SWPBS is the emphasis on practices delivered WITH the systems needed to support the practices.The use of data for decision-making is the single most important system within SWPBS. This element is used both to ensure the SWPBS practices are tailored to the local context/culture, and to benefit the continuous regeneration needed for sustained implementation.SYSTEMSSupportingStaff Behavior
20Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior SCHOOL-WIDE Tertiary Prevention:SpecializedIndividualizedSystems for Students with High-Risk BehaviorSCHOOL-WIDEPOSITIVE BEHAVIORSUPPORT~5%Secondary Prevention:Specialized GroupSystems for Students with At-Risk Behavior~15%Primary Prevention:School-/Classroom-Wide Systems forAll Students,Staff, & Settings~80% of Students27
21School-wide Systems (All students all settings all times) Create a positive school culture:School environment is predictable1. common language2. common vision (understanding of expectations)3. common experience (everyone knows)School environment is positiveregular recognition for positive behaviorSchool environment is safeviolent and disruptive behavior is not toleratedSchool environment is consistentadults use similar expectations.
23Specific Setting Systems Positive expectations & routines taught & encouragedActive supervision by all staffScan, move, interactPre-corrections & remindersPositive reinforcement
24Classroom Management Systems Behavior & classroom managementClassroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouragedClassroom routines & cues taughtRatio of 5 positive to 1 negative adult-student interactionActive supervisionRedirections for minor, infrequent behavior errorsFrequent pre-corrections for chronic errorsCurriculum matched to student ability
25Individual Student Systems Function-based behavior support planningTeam- & data-based decision makingComprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processesTargeted social skills & self-management instructionIndividualized instructional & curricular accommodations
26Invest in Prevention (school-wide) Build a Culture of Competence Define behavioral expectationsTeach behavioral expectationsMonitor and reward appropriate behaviorProvide corrective consequences for behavioral errors.Information-based problem solvingDo not expect school-wide efforts to affect students with chronic problem behavior.
27Define School-wide Expectations for Social Behavior Identify 3-5 ExpectationsShort statementsPositive Statements (what to do, not what to avoid doing)MemorableExamples:Be Respectful, Be Responsible, Be Safe, Be Kind, Be a Friend, Be-there-be-ready, Hands and feet to self, Respect self, others, property, Do your best, Follow directions of adults
28ActivityDefine three-five core behavioral expectations you would recommend for your school.Core valuePositive – ShortMemorableHow would you include families, students, community members in the process?How would you assess if the teaching had been effective?
29Teach Behavioral Expectations Transform broad school-wide Expectations into specific, observable behaviors.Use the Expectations by Settings MatrixTeach in the actual settings where behaviors are to occurTeach (a) the words, and (b) the actions.Build a social culture that is predictable, and focused on student success.
31Discipline Matrix Sit with your class Clean up your area Location 1LunchLocation 2Location 3ClassroomLocation 4Location 5Location 6Expectation 1RespectSit with your classListen when others speak/Expectation 2ResponsibleClean up your areaBe on taskExpectation 3Expectation 4Expectation 5
33RAH – at Adams City High School (Respect – Achievement – Honor) ClassroomHallway/CommonsCafeteriaBathroomsRespectBe on time; attend regularly; follow class rulesKeep location neat, keep to the right, use appropriate lang., monitor noise level, allow others to passPut trash in cans, push in your chair, be courteous to all staff and studentsKeep area clean, put trash in cans, be mindful of others’ personal space, flush toiletAchievementDo your best on all assignments and assessments, take notes, ask questionsKeep track of your belongings, monitor time to get to classCheck space before you leave, keep track of personal belongingsBe a good example to other students, leave the room better than you found itHonorDo your own work; tell the truthBe considerate of yours and others’ personal spaceKeep your own place in line, maintain personal boundariesReport any graffiti or vandalism
34Teaching Matrix Activity (Identify cells that you would change) Teaching Matrix Activity (Identify cells that you would change)ClassroomLunchroomBusHallwayAssemblyRespect OthersNo food in classEat your own foodStay in your seatNo harassmentNo violenceArrive on time to speakerRespect Environment & PropertyRecycle paperReturn traysKeep feet on floorDo not litterLeave the auditorium as clean as you find it.Respect YourselfDo your bestWash your handsBe at stop on timeUse your wordsNo hatsNo gumRespect LearningHave materials readyEat balanced dietGo directly from bus to classGo directly to classDiscuss topics in class w/ others
35Teaching Matrix Activity (Identify cells that you would change) Teaching Matrix Activity (Identify cells that you would change)ClassroomLunchroomBusHallwayAssemblyRespect OthersNo food in classEat your own foodStay in your seatNo harassmentNo violenceArrive on time to speakerRespect Environment & PropertyRecycle paperReturn traysKeep feet on floorDo not litterLeave the auditorium as clean as you find it.Respect YourselfDo your bestWash your handsBe at stop on timeUse your wordsNo hatsNo gumRespect LearningHave materials readyEat balanced dietGo directly from bus to classGo directly to classDiscuss topics in class w/ others
37Activity: Teaching Matrix Define your school-wide expectationsDefine a set of possible locationsSelect 1 location:Define the best example of behaving appropriately.Identify the most common behavioral error in that location, and identify the positive alternative.Write these two positive behaviors in each cell of the matrix.
38Teaching Behavioral Expectations Teach behavior the same way you teach other subjectsDefine the concept to be learned (the label)Provide rationale/ logicProvide positive examples, and emphasize the key features of the positive examplesJuxtapose positive examples with negative examples to build precisionPractice positive performance with recognition
40Activity As a team (your table) Use the behavioral expectations from one member of the team as the standard for your “school”Select a location in the schoolWrite a teaching plan that can be delivered to students in min.
41Continuum of Consequences for Behavioral Errors Page 37Do not ignore problem behavior.(unless ignoring is part of a specific program)Define specific teacher responses for “minor” and “major” problem behavior.Define a general “rule” for when a teacher should send a student to the office.Do NOT expect office referrals to change behavior.Use office referrals to (a) prevent problem behavior from being rewarded, (b) prevent escalation, and (c) prevent problem behavior from interrupting on-going instruction.Use teaching to change behaviorSee for a list of behavioral definitions for problem behavior.
42Activity: (Record your personal score, then compare) On a scale of 1-10 (10=high)To what extent do teachers/staff in your school have a clear and consistent understanding of when to send a student to the office?To what extent do teachers/staff in your school use consistent definitions for types of problem behavior (e.g., harassment, disruption, dress code violation, non-compliance)?
43On-going Reward of Appropriate Behavior Every faculty and staff member acknowledges appropriate behavior.5 to 1 ratio of positive to negative contactsSystem that makes acknowledgement easy and simple for students and staff.Different strategies for acknowledging appropriate behavior (small frequent rewards more effective)Beginning of class recognitionRafflesOpen gymSocial acknowledgement
45Cougar Traits in the Community Student Name __________________________________ Displayed the Cougar Trait of: Respect Responsibility Caring Citizenship (Circle the trait you observed) Signature _____________________________________________ If you would like to write on the back the details of what you observed feel free! Thank you for supporting our youth.
46To build staff moral we began recognizing the positive things we were seeing among the adults in our building.
47Are Rewards Dangerous?“…our research team has conducted a series of reviews and analysis of (the reward) literature; our conclusion is that there is no inherent negative property of reward. Our analyses indicate that the argument against the use of rewards is an overgeneralization based on a narrow set of circumstances.”Judy Cameron, 2002Cameron, 2002Cameron & Pierce, 1994, 2002Cameron, Banko & Pierce, 2001“The undermining effect of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation remains unproven”Steven Reiss, 2005Akin-Little, K. A., Eckert, T. L., Lovett, B. J., & Little, S. G. (2004). Extrinsic reinforcement in the classroom: Bribery or best practices. School Psychology Review, 33,Use of rewards inEducation
48“What the Worlds Greatest Managers Do Differently” “What the Worlds Greatest Managers Do Differently” Buckingham & Coffman 2002, Gallup Interviews with 1 million workers, 80,000 managers, in 400 companies.Create working environments where employees:1. Know what is expected2. Have the materials and equipment to do the job correctly3. Receive recognition each week for good work.4. Have a supervisor who cares, and pays attention5. Receive encouragement to contribute and improve6. Can identify a person at work who is a “best friend.”7. Feel the mission of the organization makes them feel like their jobs are important8. See the people around them committed to doing a good job9. Feel like they are learning new things (getting better)10. Have the opportunity to do their job well.
49“What the Worlds Greatest Administrators Do Differently” “What the Worlds Greatest Administrators Do Differently” Buckingham & Coffman 2002, Gallup Interviews with 1 million workers, 80,000 managers, in 400 companies.Create working environments where Faculty:1. Know what is expected2. Have the materials and equipment to do the job correctly3. Receive recognition each week for good work.4. Have a supervisor who cares, and pays attention5. Receive encouragement to contribute and improve6. Can identify a person at work who is a “best friend.”7. Feel the mission of the organization makes them feel like their jobs are important8. See the people around them committed to doing a good job9. Feel like they are learning new things (getting better)10. Have the opportunity to do their job well.
50“What the Worlds Greatest Teachers Do Differently” “What the Worlds Greatest Teachers Do Differently” Buckingham & Coffman 2002, Gallup Interviews with 1 million workers, 80,000 managers, in 400 companies.Create working environments where students:1. Know what is expected2. Have the materials and equipment to do the job correctly3. Receive recognition each week for good work.4. Have a supervisor who cares, and pays attention5. Receive encouragement to contribute and improve6. Can identify a person at work who is a “best friend.”7. Feel the mission of the organization makes them feel like their jobs are important8. See the people around them committed to doing a good job9. Feel like they are learning new things (getting better)10. Have the opportunity to do their job well.
51Predictable Consistent Positive Safe Action: Rate your school culture 1. Use a student perspective 2. Use a staff perspectiveLow HighPredictableConsistentPositiveSafe
52Activity: 7 minYou are interested in student’s being respectful of each other.How would you build an acknowledgement system that promotes and encourages being respectful of others?In elementary gradesIn middle schoolIn high school
53Use of Data for Decision-making Use of data to guide implementationTeam Implementation ChecklistUse of student data (office discipline referrals) to assess impact.
58Activity: Rate each cell as: In place, Partial, Not In place Data are collectedData are shared with Admin and/or teamData are shared at least quarterly with whole facultyInformation about our implementation of discipline practicesIn PlacePartially In PlaceNot In placeInformation about office discipline referralsInformation about students with more significant problem behaviors
59Invest in Sustainability Systems It is not adequate to invest in practices that work, if those practices do not sustainGlenn Latham
60Practices and Systems for School-wide Behavior Support Define expectationsTeach expectationsMonitor expected behaviorAcknowledge expected behaviorCorrect behavioral errors (continuum of consequences)Use information for decision-makingSystemsAdmin LeadershipTeam-based implementationDefined commitmentAllocation of FTEBudgeted supportDevelopment of decision-driven information systemFormal policies
61Efficient Systems of Support Combine rather than add initiativesNever stop doing what worksLook for smallest change that produces largest effectDifferent systems for different challengesThe need for continuous self-assessmentLink behavioral and academic outcomesNo new resources requiredfor school-wide
62Efficient Systems of Support “The typical school operates 14 different prevention activities concurrently, and the typical activity is implemented with poor quality.”Gottfredson, Gottfredson, Czeh, Cantor, Crosse & Hantman, 2000
63Summary Invest in prevention Build a social culture of competence Focus on different systems for different challengesBuild local capacity through team processes, and adaptation of the practices to fit the local contextUse data for decision-makingBegin with active administrative leadershipExamples
64Initiative, Project, Committee Working SmarterInitiative, Project, CommitteePurposeOutcomeTarget GroupStaff InvolvedSIP/SID/etcAttendance CommitteeCharacter EducationSafety CommitteeSchool Spirit CommitteeDiscipline CommitteeDARE CommitteeEBS Work GroupEliminate all initiatives that do NOT have a defined purpose and outcome measure.2. Combine initiatives that have the same outcome measure and same target group3. Combine initiatives that have 75% of the same staff4. Eliminate initiatives that are not tied to School Improvement Goals.
65Action Time: 7 MinutesReview the Sample Team Matrix. Identify at least two recommendations you would have for improving the efficiency of staff time in this school.Given the guidelines for team organization identify (a) the teams in your school, and (b) the extent to which you believe your school uses faculty/staff time efficiently.
66Sample Team Matrix Initiative, Committee Purpose Outcome Target Group Staff InvolvedSIP/SID/etcAttendance CommitteeIncrease attendance% of students attendingAll studentsEric, Ellen, MarleeGoal #2Character EducationImprove characterStudent behavior?Marlee, J.S., EllenGoal #3Safety CommitteeImprove safetyDangerous studentsHas not metSchool Spirit CommitteeSchool spiritDiscipline CommitteeImprove behaviorImprove disciplineBullies, repeat offendersEllen, Eric, Marlee, OtisDARE CommitteeDecrease drug useHigh risk drug usersDon??EBS Work GroupImplement 3-tier modelOffice referrals,Attendance, GradesEric, Ellen, Marlee, Otis, Emma
67Why should we be committed to implementation of SWPBS? SWPBS benefits childrenReduction in problem behaviorOffice discipline referralsSuspensionsExpulsionsImproved effectiveness for intensive interventionsIncreased student engagementRisk and protective factors improveStudents perceive school as a safer, more supportive environmentImproved academic performanceWhen coupled with effective instructionImproved family involvement
76Key Evaluation Questions Is PBS associated with school safety? School Safety SurveyRisk FactorsVandalism FightsGang Activity BullyingPoverty Drug UseProtective FactorsCrisis Plan Positive school climateSchool-wide discipline High expectationsStudents engaged Positive Student-Teacher Relationships
78Why should we be committed to implementation of SW-PBIS? Benefits to faculty and staff:Improved consistency across facultyBetter collaboration in support of individual studentsImproved classroom managementClassroom routinesStrategies for preventing and pre-empting problem behaviorReduced faculty absenteeismIncreased faculty retentionImproved substitute performance/perceptionIncreased ratings of faculty “effectiveness”Staff perceive themselves as more effective due to coherent planning, improved student behavior, effective strategies for addressing problems.
79Why should we be committed to implementation of SW-PBIS? Benefits to District/CommunityImproved cost effectiveness1 ODR = 15 min staff time; 45 min student timeSustained effects across administrator, faculty, staff, student change.Cost of re-creating systems draws away from effective education.Administrative benefits of scaleCost savings for data systemsEffective transitions among faculty when they shift from one school to another.Effective innovationData systems promote innovation.Focus on research-based practices
81Savings in Administrative time What does a reduction of 850 office referrals and 25 suspensions mean? Kennedy Middle SchoolSavings in Administrative timeODR = 15 minSuspension = 45 min13,875 minutes231 hours29, 8-hour daysSavings in Student Instructional timeODR = 45 minSuspension = 216 min43,650 minutes728 hours121 6-hour school days
82Summary Invest in prevention Build a social culture of competence Focus on different systems for different challengesBuild local capacity through team processes, and adaptation of the practices to fit the local contextUse data for decision-makingBegin with active administrative leadershipExamples