Videos Scramble for Africa for Handout for handout start at 20:20Scramble for Africa for Handout
Effects of WWII in Africa Turning point to the Rise of Nationalist Movements –Europe made some reforms but too late – ex. African gov’t official –Why? African saw the human side of European while serving together – not superior – destroyed their invincibility An increasing number of Africans reasoned that a war in which Europeans slaughtered fellow Europeans, meant that colonial regimes had little right to lecture African leaders and people about how to conduct their affairs
1. Why were many Africans able to win independence after WWII? Atlantic Charter: supported “the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they will live” – US and Britain Supported by UN Charter Negritude Movement: pride in African culture – new dignity and self-respect Rise of Nationalist Leaders and working class support
1. Why were many Africans able to win independence after WWII? European powers were weakened after the war. Lack of money to run colonies The Cold War helped nationalists and condemned imperialism – US and Soviet Union European nations saw they must give up colonies – video 5:00 – YouTube – same vidvideoYouTube
During the 1950s and 1960s, the history of most African countries was characterized by the achievement of political independence
The “Wind of Change” The wind of change is blowing through this continent, and whether we like it or not, this growth of national consciousness is a political fact. We must all accept it as a fact, and our national policies must take account of it. –British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan to the Parliament of South Africa, on February 3, 1960 in Cape Town. –Britain intended to grant independence to colonies
Africa Produced Many Newly- Independent Nations in a Very Short Time
And often found themselves caught in a battle between the two superpowers
British Colonies Were Some of the First to Seek Independence because Britain felt hypocritical about colonialism. War left her weak and unable to afford colonies. A New African educated middle class began to emerge in the cities.
2. What nation was 1 st to gain Independence? When? What is the significance? Ghana –Independence SongIndependence Song 1957 It occurred through peaceful means –Slow transition Centralization of power raised the hopes because could lead to more independent nations in Africa
3. Who was Kwame Nkrumah? Nationalist leader in Ghana –Educated abroad –Father of African Nationalism –strikes and boycotts for self- government 1 st Prime Minister of Ghana Supported Pan- Africanism Kwame’s SongKwame’s Song – YouTube song YouTube song Independence Speech and Questions
4. Purpose Pan-Africanism Africa must be freed from colonial rule Called for the unifying of all of Africa Slogan “Africa for Africans”
5. Who was Jomo Kenyatta? Nationalist leader in Kenya –Educated abroad He demanded political & economic reforms from British Massive uprisings: Mau Mau: African resistance army (Land and Freedom Army) 1964 became the first president of Kenya African Interactive Map
Ethnic Groups Map Kikuyu 22%: The Kikuyu homeland is around Mount Kenya. Land ownership is the most important social, political, religious, and economic factor. Kikuyu farmers produce most of the fresh produce that is consumed in Nairobi as well as coffee and tea for export. Luhya 14%: The Luyha's traditional homeland is around Kakamega in western Kenya. The Luyha suffer from high population density which effects their farming economy as cultivation occurs on plots that get smaller with each generation. They are important producers of sugar-cane. Luo 13%: The Luo live for the most part on the shores of Lake Victoria. They are fishermen and farmers. The Luo also played an important role during the independence struggle and many leading politicians have been Luo including Oginga Odinga, Tom Mboya, and Robert Ouko. Kalenjin 12%: The Kalenjin have become politically powerful. They live primarily in the Rift Valley Although mainly pastoralists, the Kalenjin have taken up some agriculture and also produce honey., Kamba 11%: The Kamba homeland, which is east of Nairobi towards Tsavo national park Meru 6%: The Meru live mainly on the northeast side of Mount Kenya. They are farmers and also produce tea, coffee, pyrethrum, maize, potatoes and miraa, a stimulant popular with Muslims.
6. Identify Mau Mau Armed resistance groups in opposition of whites who refuse rights to blacks –Land and Freedom Army Attacked white settlers Guerrilla warfare –is a form of warfare –refers to conflicts by a small group of armed civilians –Military tactics: ambushes, sabotage, raids, surprise, and mobility
Mau Mau torture victims to receive compensation - 2013 Kenyans were subject to torture and other forms of ill treatment of the hands the colonial administration.
Kenya Basil Video 14:30 – 21:30 14:30 – 21:30 in
Kenyans Worry Election Will Bring Repeat Of Tribal Violence NPR Report - Kenyans Worry Election Will Bring Repeat Of Tribal ViolenceNPR Report Kenya's luxury housing boom 5:00Kenya's luxury housing boom
7. What year was hailed “The Year of Africa”? Why? 1960 is referred to as the Year of Africa Why? –the independence of seventeen African nations –the growing Pan-African movement –Freed without bloodshed -negotiate - Avoid large scale war
Tanzania Tanganyika region was placed under United Nations Independent movements sprung up around this time, including the Tanganyika Africa National Union (TANU), headed by Julius Nyerere. Support for TANU and the first elections were planned for Tanganyika. December 9, 1961, Tanganyika became an independent republic and became known from then on as Tanzania.
8. Who was Julius Nyerere? What did he support? 1 st President of Tanzania –Educated abroad Socialism for self- reliance He argued one-party system could achieve democracy = reflected African tradition of consensus African Interactive Map
And often found themselves caught in a battle between the two superpowers
9. How did the Cold War affect independence in Africa? Nonalignment (officially) - no sides Nationalist looked to Communists for support away from colonial rulers Supper powers interested because of resources Involved by proxy – destabilized region
Patrice Lumumba General Joseph Mobutu The Congo Basil Video 27:40 minutes 27:40 minutes in
Patrice Lumumba Lumumba escaped but was captured by army forces. His captors later transferred him to Katanga, where he was assassinated on Jan. 17, 1961. Lumumba's death sparked worldwide demonstrations. The protesters said the West was meddling in Africa’s affairs. They believed that Western countries, especially Belgium and the United States, had sought Lumumba’s removal from power. The Congo
General Joseph Mobutu For more than 25 years, Mobutu had complete power. Until 1990, Zaire had only one political party, which supported Mobutu's policies. That year, Mobutu announced governmental reforms under which opposition parties were allowed to form. In 1991, a national conference was held to rewrite the Constitution
10. The Congo 1960: Independence from Belgium 14 million people – 200 separate groups All had political and economic interest = control of resources = civil war = disaster Sign that Africans can’t handle independence without colonial interference Patrice Lumumba: 1st Prime minister; foreign help turned to USSR; remove and murdered –Congo should control its own extensive mineral wealth General Joseph Mobutu: military rule; Zaire; US support ArticleArticle African Interactive Map African Interactive Map
Today the Congo Is Experiencing Punishing War! Michael Kamber for The New York Times Michael Kamber for The New York Times About 5,000 people fleeing the ethnic warfare in and around Bunia, Congo, sought safety at a camp on Monday.
11. What were the goals of African Nationalist leaders? To create a sense of unity among diverse groups in order to win independence Self-government Governments followed British Parliamentary System To create stability, develop economy, education
Parliamentary SystemPresidential System Legislative BranchParliament elected by voters. The majority party in Parliament chooses the prime minister. Congress elected by voters. Legislative and executive functions are separate. Chief Executive (Government Head) Prime minister who heads council of ministers, or "Cabinet" President, elected by voters, nominates cabinet members. Head of StateOften a constitutional monarch. Legislatures often choose a ceremonial president, who acts as head of state. President is head of state. ElectionsPrime minister can call new elections. Held at fixed intervals. Political PartiesOften a multiparty system. Government is formed by a ruling coalition of cooperating parties. Usually a two-party system with third parties holding marginal power. ExamplesIsrael, Great Britain, and her former colonies, such as India. The United States, Mexico, and Brazil.
Parliamentary vs. Presidential Parliamentary System Prime Minister is not directly elected No division of executive and legislative powers Separate Head of state and head of government Executive power (PM) is accountable to the legislature Stronger Party Discipline Presidential System President is directly elected by the people Division of legislative and executive powers. Is both head of state and government Is not accountable to the legislature. Weaker party discipline (relative to parliamentary)
Other governments: One-party rule Military rule –General Joseph Mobutu: Congo renamed Zaire Autocratic rule –ruling with absolute authority –Many postcolonial African governments took on this form of government
12. Issues with the decolonization of Africa. Colonial rulers did little to prepare Africans for independence –Weakened traditional leaders/limited experience –Artificial boundaries: include rival ethnic group and created minorities –No industry –No national Unity –Lack of democracy –Military rule Independence not solution to many African problems
13. What are the goals of the Organization of African Unity? 1963: help guide African nations to end colonial rule and self-government Economic cooperation Deal with regional problems Work to settle disputes between countries African Union
14. Explain the Colonial Legacy in Africa Anti-colonialism sentiment Created African desire to modernize and improve their standard of living the division of Africa into more than 50 states whose boundaries were set without regard for where the people lived or how they organized their own political divisions. – artificial boundaries Colonial rulers made material improvements Disparity in relations with developed nation – dependence on former colonial ruler African Interactive Map
Today African governments need to take advantage of the profit from natural resources and reinvest in their countries