Unparalelled Destruction Much of Europe, North Africa and East Asia lay in ruins. Total war had destroyed cities, factories, railroads, homes – and lives.
Africa Produced Many Newly- Independent Nations in a Very Short Time
British Colonies Were Some of the First to Seek Independence because Britain felt hypocritical about colonialism. War left her weak and unable to afford colonies. A New African educated middle class began to emerge in the cities.
Factors leading to African Independence World War II the turning point Increase in nationalism –loyalty and devotion to a nation especially as expressed in a glorifying of one nation above all others and a stressing of the promotion of its culture and interests Pan-Africanism –Movement promoting the cultural unity of people of African heritage in their struggle for independence
Kwame Nkrumah Led the Former Gold Coast to Independence Educated at Lincoln University in Pennsylvania. First elected president Preached nonviolence. Used boycotts and strikes. Ultimately successful March 6, 1957.
Kenyan Independence: 1963 London educated Jomo Kenyatta provided strong nationalist leadership. Mau Mau Rebellions made up of Kikuyu farmers weaken British settlers opposition.
Senegal, Sierra Leone, Mali, Niger, Chad, Madagascar
Former French Colonies Begin to seek independence Given ultimatum “All or Nothing” French Community Only Guinea chose independence 1960: All French colonies in Africa given independence
The old BelgianCongo, Formerly Zaire, Now Democratic Republic of the Congo The old Belgian Congo, Formerly Zaire, Now Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo Home to many different ethnic groups 1955: Belgian gov’t institutes 30-year independence plan 1959 violence breaks out June 30, 1960: Independence followed by civil war
Mobutu Sese Seko Ruled 1965-1997. Ruled 1965-1997. Supported by U.S. as Cold War ally. Supported by U.S. as Cold War ally. Changed name to Zaire. Changed name to Zaire. Left “a house that had been eaten by termites” NYTimes. Left “a house that had been eaten by termites” NYTimes. Reign described in 2002 documentary as an “African Tragedy.” Reign described in 2002 documentary as an “African Tragedy.”
Today the Congo Is Experiencing Punishing War! Michael Kamber for The New York Times Michael Kamber for The New York Times About 5,000 people fleeing the ethnic warfare in and around Bunia, Congo, sought safety at a camp on Monday.