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European Expansion 1450 - 1700. The Big Questions  Why do nations expand?  What impact does exploration and expansion have on economics?  What impact.

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Presentation on theme: "European Expansion 1450 - 1700. The Big Questions  Why do nations expand?  What impact does exploration and expansion have on economics?  What impact."— Presentation transcript:

1 European Expansion

2 The Big Questions  Why do nations expand?  What impact does exploration and expansion have on economics?  What impact does exploration have on society's values and ideals?

3 Portugal  Not a wealthy country  but had a history of seafaring  Prince Henry played a major role in the early phases of exploration  Objectives:  Military glory  Christianize Muslims  Gold, slaves, and overseas route to India for spices

4 Portugal  Established trading posts on the African coast  Diaz – Cape of Good Hope  Vasco da Gama – succeeded in going around the Cape of Good Hope to India  failed to establish any trading alliances  Lisbon  capital for import of Asian goods  1511  Defeated Muslim controlled port city-states in India – laid the foundation for Portuguese imperialism (16 th and 17 th cent.)

5 Spain  Columbus embodied the goals of Spanish exploration  Spread of Christianity (converting Muslims and others)  “The Enterprise of the Indies”  direct westward route to Asia  Glory (for himself, Spanish dominance)  Over the next decades the Spanish would follow a policy of conquest and colonization in the New World, rather than equal exchange

6 Spanish Explorers  Columbus  Hispaniola and Cuba  Amerigo Vespucci  South America (modern day Venezuela)  Ferdinand Magellan  circumnavigated the globe, took 3 years (he died in the Philippines on the way)  Hernado Cortes  Mexica Empire (interior Mexico)  Francisco Pizarro  Incan Empire (interior Peru)

7 Spanish Conquests  Columbus  Forcibly subjugated the island of Hispaniola  Cortes  Conquered Tenochtitlan and killed Montezuma II  Tenochtitlan was a sophisticated civilization with advanced math, astronomy, engineering, complex social system, and with oral poetry and historical traditions  Led to Spanish subjugation of Mexico, widespread disease, and a decrease in population  Pizarro  Conquered Cuzco (city) and Atahualpa (leader)  Incan Empire was highly sophisticated  The defeat led to decades of violence and disease and ultimate Spanish rule

8 Treaty of Tordesillas  Both Spain and Portugal have claims in the Atlantic  Treaty was signed to settle competing claims to Atlantic discoveries between Spain and Portugal  Spain got the west  Portugal got the east

9 Treaty of Tordesillas

10 Spanish  Established the encomienda system  System whereby the Spanish crown granted the conquerors the right to forcibly employ groups of Indians; it was a disguised form of slavery  Columbian Exchange  Exchange of animals, plants, and diseases between the Old and New Worlds

11 Columbian Exchange  Europe brought over:  Sugar, rice, bananas, wheat, grapes, olives  Domesticated animals  horses, cattle, sheep, dogs, pigs, chickens, goats  Smallpox, measles, bubonic plague, influenza, typhus, diphtheria, scarlet fever  Europeans brought back:  Corn, tomatoes, pineapples, potatoes, beans, ect.  Turkeys  Syphilis (possibly)

12 Columbian Exchange

13 England  First colony  Roanoke in 1585, vanished  Jamestown  1607  Later competed with the Dutch for territory (N.E. to Virginia)  English settlements hugged the coastline  did not explore into the mainland  English Expansion Objectives:  Religious freedom for radical Protestants  Production of tobacco (growing market in Europe)

14 France  French Objective  Trade  Samuel de Champlain  founded Quebec 1608  Explored:  Waterways of the St. Lawrence  Great Lakes  Mississippi  Canada  Gulf of Mexico  French territory stretched from Canada down to Louisiana

15 France  Also had territories in the West Indies (Caribbean)  Originally were bases for plundering Spanish shipping  eventually some areas became French colonies  Also competed with England for over a century  Seven Years War ( )  France lost Canada and Louisiana  Regained Louisiana in 1800 and sold it to the U.S. in 1803

16 The Netherlands (Dutch)  Traveled east and west, objective was to trade  West:  Henry Hudson  traveled to the U.S.  South America  East  Established the Dutch East India Company  dominant trading company in Europe  Australia  Africa – traded in slaves

17 Exploration and the Economy  Exploration brings Europe new lands and resources  Changes in business & trade, money & economic life  = Commercial Revolution  Mercantilism  National economic policy aimed at accumulating monetary reserves through a positive balance of trade, especially of finished goods  Manor centered  town centered  now state centered  Exploration leads to European rulers rise in power

18 Mercantilism  1. Accumulation of Wealth  State is building wealth  gold and silver  1600s  ruler’s power judged by luxury of royal court and size of the army  2. Trade with Colonies  Colonies = source of profit for home country  Colonies supply wealth (gold, silver, raw material) to home country  Colonies buy goods from home country

19 Mercantilism  Rise of Joint-Stock Companies  Shipping from Europe to Asia or America  dangerous, time-consuming, expensive  To pay for trading voyages   Individuals bought stock shares – investors/part-owners  Increase in money, decrease in risk to individual investors  Dutch East India Company, English East India Company

20 Economy and Changing Society  Wealth now means money and good NOT land  Rich middle class merchants  spend money to make money  lack of luxury or savings  Rulers and aristocrats looked down on money-makers  remember, power is judged by excess in luxury and money!!  Huge competition between nations for gold and silver!  Lots of attacks on other nations’ ships!!

21 Economy and Changing Society  Most of the gold and silver went to Spain and Portugal  Wealthy Europeans bought the increase in goods & food BUT products become scarce and prices rise!  Because of an increase in European population there is a need for more food and goods  This leads to INFLATION  A sharp, steady rise in prices caused by excess demand  This will cause social changes across Europe

22 Economy and Changing Society  Inflation affects different groups:  Landowning nobles needed money to buy the same goods  got fixed rent from peasants  Not good for the peasants  many lose their land, forced to work for low wages  Merchants profited by charging high prices for goods sold  Demand for goods is higher than European supply  causes an increase in foreign trade for goods

23 Capitalism  Capitalism – economic system based on private ownership and use of capital  Capital – wealth in the form of property/money used to make more money (land, tools, machinery, ships, shops, ect.)

24 Capitalism  During the Late Middle Ages  new business practices led to capitalism (in Italy)  Profits from trade and interest on loans  Italian merchants built up their capital  They used it to reinvest in their business or other enterprises  They pooled money and expanded business  As business activity increase, merchants developed book keeping system to track money flow  Banking and use of credit made business dealing much easier

25 Capitalism  1. Private Ownership = Free Enterprise  People free to do what they want with their money  Bank for interest, start a business, invest in a company, ect.  2. Profit Motive – Desire to make a profit  Law of Supply and Demand  Demand is greater than supply = price increase  Supply is greater than demand = price decrease  Company produces goods to make a profit for its investors or owners

26 Capitalism  3. Markey Economy  Money value placed on all property – land, goods, time, labor  Because price and quantity decisions are made in a free market  people must adhere to the law of supply and demand  NOTE: Mercantile Capitalism of s differ from modern capitalism!  No large corporations which made modern capitalism possible

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