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European Expansion 1450 - 1700.

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Presentation on theme: "European Expansion 1450 - 1700."— Presentation transcript:

1 European Expansion

2 The Big Questions Why do nations expand?
What impact does exploration and expansion have on economics? What impact does exploration have on society's values and ideals?

3 Portugal Not a wealthy country  but had a history of seafaring
Prince Henry played a major role in the early phases of exploration Objectives: Military glory Christianize Muslims Gold, slaves, and overseas route to India for spices

4 Portugal Established trading posts on the African coast
Diaz – Cape of Good Hope Vasco da Gama – succeeded in going around the Cape of Good Hope to India  failed to establish any trading alliances Lisbon  capital for import of Asian goods 1511  Defeated Muslim controlled port city-states in India – laid the foundation for Portuguese imperialism (16th and 17th cent.)

5 Spain Columbus embodied the goals of Spanish exploration
Spread of Christianity (converting Muslims and others) “The Enterprise of the Indies”  direct westward route to Asia Glory (for himself, Spanish dominance) Over the next decades the Spanish would follow a policy of conquest and colonization in the New World, rather than equal exchange

6 Spanish Explorers Columbus  Hispaniola and Cuba
Amerigo Vespucci  South America (modern day Venezuela) Ferdinand Magellan  circumnavigated the globe, took 3 years (he died in the Philippines on the way) Hernado Cortes  Mexica Empire (interior Mexico) Francisco Pizarro  Incan Empire (interior Peru)

7 Spanish Conquests Columbus  Forcibly subjugated the island of Hispaniola Cortes  Conquered Tenochtitlan and killed Montezuma II Tenochtitlan was a sophisticated civilization with advanced math, astronomy, engineering, complex social system, and with oral poetry and historical traditions Led to Spanish subjugation of Mexico, widespread disease, and a decrease in population Pizarro  Conquered Cuzco (city) and Atahualpa (leader) Incan Empire was highly sophisticated The defeat led to decades of violence and disease and ultimate Spanish rule

8 Treaty of Tordesillas Both Spain and Portugal have claims in the Atlantic Treaty was signed to settle competing claims to Atlantic discoveries between Spain and Portugal Spain got the west Portugal got the east

9 Treaty of Tordesillas

10 Spanish Established the encomienda system Columbian Exchange
System whereby the Spanish crown granted the conquerors the right to forcibly employ groups of Indians; it was a disguised form of slavery Columbian Exchange Exchange of animals, plants, and diseases between the Old and New Worlds

11 Columbian Exchange Europe brought over: Europeans brought back:
Sugar, rice, bananas, wheat, grapes, olives Domesticated animals  horses, cattle, sheep, dogs, pigs, chickens, goats Smallpox, measles, bubonic plague, influenza, typhus, diphtheria, scarlet fever Europeans brought back: Corn, tomatoes, pineapples, potatoes, beans, ect. Turkeys Syphilis (possibly)

12 Columbian Exchange

13 England First colony  Roanoke in 1585, vanished Jamestown  1607
Later competed with the Dutch for territory (N.E. to Virginia) English settlements hugged the coastline  did not explore into the mainland English Expansion Objectives: Religious freedom for radical Protestants Production of tobacco (growing market in Europe)

14 France French Objective  Trade
Samuel de Champlain  founded Quebec 1608 Explored: Waterways of the St. Lawrence Great Lakes Mississippi Canada Gulf of Mexico French territory stretched from Canada down to Louisiana

15 France Also had territories in the West Indies (Caribbean)
Originally were bases for plundering Spanish shipping  eventually some areas became French colonies Also competed with England for over a century Seven Years War ( ) France lost Canada and Louisiana Regained Louisiana in 1800 and sold it to the U.S. in 1803

16 The Netherlands (Dutch)
Traveled east and west, objective was to trade West: Henry Hudson  traveled to the U.S. South America East Established the Dutch East India Company  dominant trading company in Europe Australia Africa – traded in slaves

17 Exploration and the Economy
Exploration brings Europe new lands and resources Changes in business & trade, money & economic life = Commercial Revolution Mercantilism National economic policy aimed at accumulating monetary reserves through a positive balance of trade, especially of finished goods Manor centered  town centered  now state centered Exploration leads to European rulers rise in power

18 Mercantilism 1. Accumulation of Wealth 2. Trade with Colonies
State is building wealth  gold and silver 1600s  ruler’s power judged by luxury of royal court and size of the army 2. Trade with Colonies Colonies = source of profit for home country Colonies supply wealth (gold, silver, raw material) to home country Colonies buy goods from home country

19 Mercantilism Rise of Joint-Stock Companies
Shipping from Europe to Asia or America  dangerous, time-consuming, expensive To pay for trading voyages  Individuals bought stock shares – investors/part-owners Increase in money, decrease in risk to individual investors Dutch East India Company, English East India Company

20 Economy and Changing Society
Wealth now means money and good NOT land Rich middle class merchants  spend money to make money  lack of luxury or savings Rulers and aristocrats looked down on money-makers  remember, power is judged by excess in luxury and money!! Huge competition between nations for gold and silver! Lots of attacks on other nations’ ships!!

21 Economy and Changing Society
Most of the gold and silver went to Spain and Portugal Wealthy Europeans bought the increase in goods & food BUT products become scarce and prices rise! Because of an increase in European population there is a need for more food and goods This leads to INFLATION A sharp, steady rise in prices caused by excess demand This will cause social changes across Europe

22 Economy and Changing Society
Inflation affects different groups: Landowning nobles needed money to buy the same goods  got fixed rent from peasants Not good for the peasants  many lose their land, forced to work for low wages Merchants profited by charging high prices for goods sold Demand for goods is higher than European supply  causes an increase in foreign trade for goods

23 Capitalism Capitalism – economic system based on private ownership and use of capital Capital – wealth in the form of property/money used to make more money (land, tools, machinery, ships, shops, ect.)

24 Capitalism During the Late Middle Ages  new business practices led to capitalism (in Italy) Profits from trade and interest on loans  Italian merchants built up their capital They used it to reinvest in their business or other enterprises They pooled money and expanded business As business activity increase, merchants developed book keeping system to track money flow Banking and use of credit made business dealing much easier

25 Capitalism 1. Private Ownership = Free Enterprise
People free to do what they want with their money Bank for interest, start a business, invest in a company, ect. 2. Profit Motive – Desire to make a profit Law of Supply and Demand Demand is greater than supply = price increase Supply is greater than demand = price decrease Company produces goods to make a profit for its investors or owners

26 Capitalism 3. Markey Economy
Money value placed on all property – land, goods, time, labor Because price and quantity decisions are made in a free market  people must adhere to the law of supply and demand NOTE: Mercantile Capitalism of s differ from modern capitalism! No large corporations which made modern capitalism possible

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