21960 Election Republican – VP Richard Nixon Democrat – John F. Kennedy Fresh off 1959 Kitchen debate with Soviet Premier Nikita KhrushchevWhy would that matter?Democrat – John F. Kennedy1st televised Presidential debateWho won according to radio listeners?Who won according to TV viewers?Closest election in 75 years
3A bad start Bay of Pigs – April 1961 Originally planned by Eisenhower Administration, but Kennedy signs on (“Group Think”)Failed attempt to free CubaCIAAir Force from TexasNavyCuban refugeesHope for uprisingJFK publically accepted blame
4A new direction Flexible Response – Kennedy’s new direction Truman=Containment, Eisenhower=Massive RetaliationFlexible Response – Kennedy’s new directionCreation of Special Forces to battle guerrilla forces and small conflictsCan not use nuclear weapons in every situationAlliance for Progress – aid and goodwill gesture for Latin AmericaPeace Corp – established by JKF, used volunteersHow are these ideas different?
5Other Foreign Affair Developments Berlin Wall CrisisKhrushchev has wall built around West BerlinWhy?Kennedy travels to West Berlin in 1963“Ich bin ein Berliner”Wall is symbolic of Cold War until 1989Space RaceMay 1961 – Alan Shepard into spaceJFK makes it a goal of the US to put a man on the moon by end of decade. Why?What else does the Space Race improve?NASA in FloridaMission Control in Houston1969 – Neil Armstrong
6Closest to WWIII Cuban Missile Crisis – 1962 US reconnaissance planes photographed the USSR was building underground missile sites in Cuba.Kennedy announces a Quarantine of CubaIf Soviet ships challenged, a full-scale nuclear war was likelyKhrushchev agrees to remove sites in Cuba, and US in Turkey“Khrushchev blinked”
9Effects of Cuban Missile Crisis Hot Line established between Kremlin and White House in 1963Nuclear Test Ban Treaty signed in 1963 (no testing in atmosphere)Other talks at reducing arms startBut new arms race for missile superiority starts (Space Race)
10Kennedy’s Domestic Plan New Frontier – called for aid to education, urban renewal, and civil rights.During his 1000 day administration, he could not get much passed through Congress.Some highlightsRobert Kennedy as Attorney General using Federal Gov’t in civil rights matters such as the Birmingham ProtestsHousing Act of 1961 – assisted poor in cities and rural areasTrickle-down economics – help economyIncreased minimum wage to $1.25 / hourMany of his ideas would be pushed through by Johnson’s Great Society
11Kennedy’s legacyWhy is Kennedy thought of as a great President by many when he was only in office for two and half years (1000 days)?Camelot image – idealistic youth, Jackie“ask not what your country can do for you, ask what can you do for your country.”Even negative such as Bay of Pigs – what did he do?Cuban Missile Crisis, Space Race, fight for New Frontier programs
12Assassination in Dallas November 1963 – Shocks the countryLee Harvey Oswald charged with murderOswald killed three days later by Jack RubyWarren Commission investigatedConcluded that Oswald had acted aloneMany Conspiracy theories
13Johnson and the Great Society After JFK’s assassination, Lyndon Johnson become PresidentFormer Congressman, he was able to push agenda through Congress where JFK could not.Many of his ideas were focusing on problems written about in Michael Harrington’s The Other America.Johnson’s Great Society Program known as “war on poverty.”
141964 ElectionIn contrast to Johnson’s liberal agenda, the Republicans nominated a staunch conservative.Barry Goldwater wanted to end TVA, Social Security.Also seen as extremist in Cold War (Daisy Ad)Johnson won in a landslide and the coattail effect made it where Democrats controlled both houses by more than 2/3.Election showed that if candidate is too extreme, Centrist American voters won’t elect them (1972 another example)
15Great Society ReformsMedicare – health insurance for those 65 or olderMedicaid – health insurance for disabled and poorElementary and Secondary Education Act – aid to poor school districts1965 Immigration Act – end QuotasFoundation on the Arts and Humanities – funding for creative and scholarly projectsIncreased funding for colleges, housing assistance, and crime prevention
16More Expansion of Government Office of Economic OpportunityCreated Community Action ProgramsHead Start programsPart of War on povertyDepartment of TransportationDepartment of Housing and Urban Development (1966)Robert Weaver – 1st African-American cabinet member
17Two books making changes Silent Spring by Rachel Carson (1962)Expose on pesticidesLaunches environmental movementUnsafe at Any Speed by Ralph Nader (1965)Caused regulations to automobile industryStart consumer advocacy program
19Johnson and Civil Rights Southerner Johnson was able to push through Civil Rights legislation.Used JFK’s death and legacy in political fightWould be final straw for many Southern Democrats with Party1964 Civil Rights Act1965 Voting Rights ActFederal support of Civil Rights in South
20Johnson’s legacyLBJ’s Great Society did accomplish many of the goals on the war on poverty. But was it a success?What were the positives?What were the negatives?What would be the reason focus would go off of the program in the late 1960s?Why did LBJ decide not to seek reelection in 1968?
21Warren CourtChief Justice Earl Warren led courts in the 1950s and 1960sMany cases had to do with Civil Rights and the Rights of the Accused.1954 – Brown v. Board1962 – Baker v. Carr – reapportionment had to be “one man-one vote”1964 – Heart of Atlanta Motel case – upheld Civil Rights Act of 1964Used Interstate Commerce Clause of ConstitutionGideon, Escobedo, and Miranda cases – rights for the accused
22Reflection QuestionsWhat goals did Kennedy, Johnson, and Warren all have in common?What did Kennedy do as President to make him so loved?What were the positives of the Great Society program?How did Kennedy change the way the Cold War was fought?