4Electric chargeElectric charge is an inherent physical property of certain subatomic particles that is responsible for electrical and magnetic phenomena.Charge is represented by the symbol q.The SI units of charge is the coulomb (C).Like mass, electric charge is a fundamental property of matter.Unlike mass, there are two types of charge:Positive and Negative.
5Electric charge, cont’d Recall that every atom is composed of electrons surrounding a nucleus.The nucleus contains:protons — positive charge.neutrons — no charge.Electrons — negative charge.An atom’s atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus.
6Electric charge, cont’d Consider how remarkable it is that the electron charge and proton charge are virtually identical
7Electric charge, cont’d An atom’s charge is neutral if it has the same number of protons and electrons.An atom is said to be ionized if the number of electrons and protons is different.
8Electric charge, cont’d If the protons outnumber the electrons, there is more positive charge.We call such an atom a positive ion.If the electrons outnumber the protons, there is more negative charge.We call such an atom a negative ion.Negative IonPositive Ion
9Electric charge, cont’d Compounds dissolved in liquid break into oppositely charged ionsTable Salt dissolved in water
10Electric force and Coulomb’s law Like charges repel, unlike charges attract.When we bring electric charges together, they exert a force on each other.Positive charges attract negative charges.Positive charges repel positive charges.Negative charges attract positive charges.Negative charges repel negative charges.
11Electric force and Coulomb’s law, cont’d Coulomb’s law describes the forces between electric charges.Coulomb’s Law states that the force acting on each of two charged objects is directly proportional to the net charges on the object and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them:
12Electric force and Coulomb’s law, cont’d The force on q1 is equal and opposite to the force on q2.If the charges increase, the force increases.If the distance increases, the force decreases.
13Electric force and Coulomb’s law, cont’d The proportionality constant has a value of 9×109 N-m2/C2.Coulomb’s law is then:F is in newtons,q1 & q2 are in coulombs, andd is in meters.
14Electric force and Coulomb’s law, cont’d The electrostatic force is similar to gravity.However, the electric force constant is 100 trillion trillion times larger than gravity:Gravitational Force constant = 7 * 10-11Electrical Force constant = 9 * 109
15Electric fieldJust as we talk about the gravitational field, we can also define an electric field.The electric field lines indicate the direction of the force on a positive charge.
16Electric field, cont’d If the field points to the right: The force on a positive charge is to the right.The force on a negative charge is to the left.The charges act as if there is a positive charge at the startof the line.
17Electric field, cont’dAn electrostatic precipitator (or your furnace electrostatic air cleaner) uses electrostatics.Negatively charged wire charge the dirt passing between the plates.The now negative dirt particles are attracted to the positively charged plates.
18Electric field, cont’dLightning is caused by charge buildups in a thundercloudWhen the charge concentrations get large enough, electricity can break across
19Electric currents An electric current is a flow of charged particles. It is the rate of flow of electric charge.The amount of charge that flows by per second:The SI unit is the ampere (A or amp):1 amp is 1 coulomb per second.
21Electric currents, cont’d Here are some examples of electric current.Positive current is in the direction of positive charge flow – which can be confusing, because most current flow is negative electronsElectrons flow throughmetal wireb) Electrons flowthrough vacuumc) Ions flow through aliquid
22Resistance Resistance is a measure of the opposition to current flow. Resistance is represented by R.The SI unit of resistance is the ohm ().A conductor is any substance that readily allows charge to flow through it.An insulator is any substance through which charge does not readily flow.
23Resistance, cont’d Resistance of a wire depends on: Composition. The particular substance from which the object is made.Length. The longer the wire, the higher the resistance.Diameter. The thinner the wire, the higher the resistance.Temperature. The higher the temperature, the higher the resistance.
24Resistance, cont’d Resistance is similar to friction. Resistance inhibits the flow of electric charge.Electrons typically produce the current in metals.The electrons collide with the atoms of the metal, which slows them down.They also lose some energy to the atoms.The metal gets hotter.
25Resistance, cont’dSuperconductivity is a phenomenon which occurs at temperatures near 0oKCertain substances provides zero resistance to the flow of electric charge.The temperature at which a substance superconducts is its transition temperature.This graph shows the superconducting transition for Hg, ~4.2K (-269ºC).
26Electric current and Ohm’s law An electric current will flow through a wire only if an electric field is present to exert a force on the charges.A device providing the electric field – and therefore the force – is called a power supply.The power supply forces charges out one terminal, through the wire, and back into the second terminal.Car battery is shown here as a power supply
27Electric current and Ohm’s law, cont’d Voltage is the work that a charged particle can do divided by the size of the charge.It is the energy per unit charge given to charged particles by a power supply.The SI unit is the volt (V).One volt equals one joule per coulomb.
28Electric current and Ohm’s law, cont’d The flow of charge in an electric circuit is similar to the flow of water through a closed path.The power supply acts like the water pump.It adds energy to make the current flow.The resistance corresponds to the narrow section of pipe.The current is like the flow of water.
29Electric current and Ohm’s law, cont’d Ohm’s law specifies that the current in a conductor is equal to the voltage applied to it divided by the resistance:V is the voltage through the conductor,I is the current passing through the conductor, andR is the conductor’s resistance.
30Electric current and Ohm’s law, cont’d According to Ohm’s law, V = IRLarger Voltage is produced bySame Resistance with Larger CurrentLarger Resistance with Same Current
31Electric current and Ohm’s law, cont’d According to Ohm’s law,Larger Current is produced bySame Resistance with Larger VoltageSmaller Resistance with Same Voltage
32Electric current and Ohm’s law, cont’d Electric Circuits are represented schematically by boxes (left) or symbols (right)
33Example Example 7.1A light bulb in a 3-volt flashlight has a resistance of 6 ohms. What is the current in the bulb when it is switched on?
34Example Example 7.1 ANSWER: The problem gives us: The current through the bulb is
35Example Example 7.2A small electric heater has a resistance of 15 ohms. What voltage is required to produce a current of 2 amperes?
36Example Example 7.2 ANSWER: The problem gives us: The necessary voltage is
37Electric current and Ohm’s law, cont’d A series circuit has only one path for the current to flow.The voltage across the first bulb, plus the voltage across the second, etc., equals the voltage of the battery.The current through each bulb is the same as the current passing through the battery.
38Electric current and Ohm’s law, cont’d Every electric circuits must be a closed loopIf the series circuit is interrupted, then current no longer flows through the circuit.If one bulb goes bad, then all the bulbs go out.
39Electric current and Ohm’s law, cont’d A parallel circuit has multiple paths for the current to flow.The current through the first bulb, plus the current through the second, etc., equals the current through the battery.The voltage on each bulb is the battery voltage.
40Electric current and Ohm’s law, cont’d If one bulb goes out, the other bulbs remain lit.There is still a closed path for the electricity to flow through the circuit.
41Electric current and Ohm’s law, cont’d A 3-way light bulb is a combination of switch-selected series and parallel circuits50 W: A closed, B open100 W: A open, B closed150 W: A closed, B closed (Parallel Circuit)
42Example Example 7.3Three light bulbs are connected in a parallel circuit with a 12-volt battery. The resistance of each bulb is 24 ohms. What is the current produce by the battery?
43Example Example 7.3 ANSWER: The problem gives us: Since the bulbs are connected in parallel, they each have the same voltage.So the current through each bulb is:
44Example Example 7.3 ANSWER: The total current is the sum of the currents through each bulb.There are three bulbs, so:
45Example Example 7.3AThree light bulbs are connected in a series circuit with a 12-volt battery. The resistance of each bulb is 24 ohms. What is the current produce by the battery?
46Example Example 7.3A ANSWER: The problem gives us: V = 12V Since the bulbs are connected in series, the current is the same through all the bulbs.We add the resistance of each bulb to get the total resistance:R = 24Ω + 24Ω + 24Ω = 72Ω
47Practical Electric currents and Ohm’s law Current I is measured with an Ammeter in Series with the LoadVoltage V is measured with a Voltmeter in Parallel with the Load
48Practical Electric currents and Ohm’s law, cont’d Resistor Color Codes show resistance and tolerance
52Power and energy in electric circuits The power output of a circuit is the rate at which energy is delivered to the circuit.Rewrite the equation, multiplying 1 (q/q):This represents the energy given to each coulomb of charge, multiplied by the number of coulombs that pass per second.
53Power and energy in electric circuits, cont’d Since:The energy given to each coulomb of charge is voltage.The number of coulombs that pass per second is the current.The power output expression≡ VI
54Power and energy in electric circuits, cont’d Hence power through a circuit can be writtenAnd since from Ohm’s Law, V=IRthis can also be written as
55Power and energy in electric circuits, cont’d The electrical resistance of many substances causes them to get hot.This type of heating is called ohmic heating.
56Example Example 7.4In Example 7.1, we computed the current that flows in a flashlight bulb. What is the power output of the batteries?
57Example Example 7.4 ANSWER: The problem gives us: So the power consumed is
58Example Example 7.4 DISCUSSION: This means the batteries supply 1.5 joules of energy each second.
59Power and energy in electric circuits, cont’d The current through the filament causes it to get very hot.The filament is a very thin wire, which hence has higher resistance.The thicker supporting wires have lowerresistance and do notget as hot.
60Example Example 7.5An electric hair dryer is rated at 1,875 watts when operating on 120 volts. What is the current flowing through it?
61Example Example 7.5 ANSWER: The problem gives us: The power is given bySince we want the current, we divide by V:
62Example Example 7.5 DISCUSSION: The wiring in the house and the hair dryer’s cord must be large enough to handle 15.6 A without overheating.
63Power and energy in electric circuits, cont’d Recall our definition of power:The change in energy per unit time.
64Power and energy in electric circuits, cont’d So we can write the energy in terms of the power:The energy change equals the rate at which energy is transferred times how long it is transferred.So if we know the power a circuit uses and how long the circuit operates, we can determine the energy used by the circuit.
65Power and energy in electric circuits, cont’d Power companies do not charge for power. They charge for energy. (Duke Power Duke Energy)A kilowatt-hour is energy.
66Example Example 7.6If the hair dryer discussed in Example 7.5 is used for 3 minutes, how much energy does it use?
67Example Example 7.6 ANSWER: The problem gives us: The energy is given in terms of power as:
68Example Example 7.6 DISCUSSION: This amount the energy will also: Accelerate a small car to 60 mph, orBrew 5 cups of coffee.
69Power and energy in electric circuits, cont’d Compact Fluorescent Lights (CFL’s) are being pushed to save energyBut these bulbs contain mercury – a hazardous material – and if they are broken, they almost require a HazMet team to clean upThere is an alternative . . .Made in CHINA
70Power and energy in electric circuits, cont’d Light Emitting Diodes (LED’s) have been used for low level lights for years.LED’s with the power required for home lighting are available.New technology may cut the current cost ($39-49) in half.
71AC and DC There are two types of current flow: direct current (DC) represents current flow that is always in the same direction.Batteries provide DC.alternating current (AC) represents current flow that alters direction periodically.Wall outlets provide AC.
72AC and DC, cont’dHere is an example of DC provided by a battery to a light bulb.The current always passes from the positive battery terminal, through the bulb, and then to the negative terminal.The current is constant in time.
73AC and DC, cont’dHere is an example of AC provided by a wall outlet to a light bulb.The current always passes from the positive terminal, through the bulb, and then to the negative terminal.But the terminals swap position over time.
74AC and DC, cont’dSo the current passing through the bulb changes direction.Our wall outlets operate at 60 Hz.So the current changes direction 120 times each second.
75Edison’s Workshop, Greenfield Village Thomas Edison used – and lobbied for acceptance of – Direct Current (DC)But today we use AC power in our homes – supplied at a standard voltage of ~120 volts, and a frequency of 60 Hz.Why do we use AC today?
76AC and DC, cont’dThe big advantage of AC over DC is the transformer, a device that can increase or decrease AC voltage.AC can be transformed to high voltage for power transmission DC cannot(Voltage transformation discussed, chapter 8)
77AC and DC, cont’dIt is more efficient for the power company to use very high voltage and low current to transmit power.Cross-country power lines use several hundred-thousand volts, allowing smaller currents to be used.With smaller current, smaller wires can be used without fear of excessive ohmic heating.This saves money of cable, the supporting structures, etc.
78AC and DC, cont’dBecause of the transformer, AC voltage can be stepped up for efficient transmission – including transmission across power grids – then stepped down for use in our homes.The same amount of power requires 2875 times more current at 120 VAC than at 345,000 VAC
80Electrical Safety, cont’d We noted earlier that the wiring in the house and cord of an 1875 Watt hair dryer must be large enough to handle 15.6 A without overheating.With a 20 A circuit, only 4.4 A is left for all other appliances
81Electrical Safety, cont’d This circuit includes appliances pulling more than 20 A.This can cause the wires to overheat and cause a fire.Fuses and circuit breakers are installed to stop current flow if this happens.
82Electrical Safety, cont’d This fuse uses ohmic heating to monitor the current through the circuit.If too much current flows, the fuse gets too hot, and a small wire in the center melts, breaking the circuit.
83Electrical Safety, cont’d Circuit breakers use bimetallic strips to protect from ohmic overheatingIf too much current flows, the strip bends, breaking the circuit and tripping the switch.
84Electrical Safety, cont’d Cords (and extension cords) must be sized to carry the current without overheatingThis 2280W heater requires 19A, but the extension cord is rated for only 10A.This is a fire hazard!!2280 watt heater10 A extensioncord
85Electrical Safety, cont’d Fuses and breakers are matched to the current capacity of the internal home wiringThey do not protect against undersized extension cords2280 watt heater10 A extensioncord
86Electrical Safety, cont’d 3-wire grounded plugs prevent electric shock
87Important Equations, Chapter 7 Understand the relationships reflected in Coulomb’s Law: