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Presentation on theme: "2-1 CHAPTER 2 AN OVERVIEW OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS."— Presentation transcript:


2 2-2 The Financial Sector: Provides for the efficient allocation of saving to real investment or consumption.

3 2-3 Surplus Spending Unit l Has more cash income flow than expenditure on consumption and real investments in a period of time. The surplus then is allocated to the financial sector. l Other terms for surplus unit are saver, lender, buyer of financial assets, financial investor, supplier of loanable funds, buyer of securities.

4 2-4 Surplus Spending Unit (concluded) l The surplus unit may buy financial assets, hold more money, pay off financial liabilities issued earlier when in a deficit situation. l The household sector is usually a surplus sector.

5 2-5 Deficit Spending Unit l Has more expenditures on real goods and services in the real sector than income during a period of time. l The deficit unit must participate (borrow) in the financial sector to balance cash inflows with outflows.

6 2-6 Deficit Spending Unit (concluded) l Other terms for deficit spending unit are borrower, demander of loanable funds, seller of securities. l The deficit spending unit may issue financial liabilities, reduce money balances, sell financial assets acquired previously when in a surplus situation.

7 2-7 Financial claims --the contracts related to the transfer of funds from surplus to deficit budget units. l Financial claims are also called financial assets and liabilities, securities, loans, financial investments. l For every financial asset, there is an offsetting financial liability. –Total receivables equal total payables in the financial system. –Loans outstanding match borrowers' liabilities.

8 2-8 Financial claims (concluded) l Financial markets offer opportunity for: –financing for DSUs (primary). –financial investing for SSUs (primary and secondary). –trading financial claims (secondary).

9 2-9 Direct financing l DSUs and SSUs negotiate and exchange money for financial claims. l DSUs issue direct financial claims; SSUs participate in direct lending. l The sale of securities by an industrial firm directly to an investor (SSU or financial institution) is a private placement.

10 2- 10 Direct financing (concluded) l Brokers bring DSUs and SSUs together; dealers buy the securities from DSUs and resell to the SSUs. l Investment bankers act as dealers in direct financial markets, purchasing securities from DSUs and selling to original SSUs.

11 2-11 Indirect financial investment is called intermediation financing l A financial "intermediary" writes a separate contract with the SSU (bank depositor) and DSU (auto loan), providing each some economic value. l Financial intermediaries hold direct claims on DSUs as financial assets and issue indirect financial claims to SSUs as liabilities.

12 2- 12 Benefits of Financial Intermediation l Economies of scale from specialization. l Transaction and search costs are lowered for SSUs and DSUs. l Financial intermediaries may be able to gather DSU information more effectively and discreetly.

13 2- 13 Intermediation services l Denomination Divisibility -- Issue varying sized contracts of assets and liabilities. l Currency Transformation -- buying and selling financial claims denominated in various currencies. l Maturity Flexibility -- Offer contracts with varying maturities to suit both DSUs and SSUs.

14 2- 14 Intermediation services (concluded) l Credit Risk Diversification -- Assume credit risks of DSUs and keep the risks manageable by spreading the risk over many varied types of DSUs (loan portfolio). l Liquidity -- Provide a place to store liquidity for SSUs (deposits); a place to find (borrow) liquidity for DSUs.

15 2- 15 Types of financial intermediaries l Deposit-Type Institutions -- Offer liquid, government- insured claims to SSUs, such as demand deposits, savings deposits, time deposits, and share accounts. –Commercial Banks -- Make a variety of consumer and commercial loans (direct claim) to DSUs. –Thrift Institutions -- Make mortgage loans (direct claim) to DSUs.

16 2- 16 Types of financial intermediaries (continued) –Credit Unions -- Receive share account deposits and make consumer loans. Membership requires a common bond, such as a church or labor union.

17 2- 17 Types of financial intermediaries (continued) Source: Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System, Z1 Statistical Release, December 11, 1998.

18 2- 18 Types of financial intermediaries (continued) l Contractual Savings Institutions -- Issue long- term claims to SSUs in the form of insurance policies and pension fund obligations. –Life Insurance Companies -- Issue life insurance policies and purchase long-term, high-yield direct financial securities.

19 2- 19 Types of financial intermediaries (continued) –Casualty Insurance Companies -- Purchase long- term, liquid, direct financial securities from paid-in- advance premiums from insurance purchasers. –Pension Funds -- issue claims to SSUs (pension reserves) and invest financially in direct financial securities (stocks and bonds).

20 2- 20 Types of financial intermediaries (continued) Source: Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System, Z1 Statistical Release, December 11, 1998.

21 2- 21 Types of financial intermediaries (continued) l Investment Funds -- Issue shares to investors and use these funds to purchase direct financial claims. –Mutual Funds -- Offer indirect mutual fund shares to SSUs and purchase direct financial assets (stocks and bonds). –Money Market Mutual Funds -- Offer (indirect) shares and purchase direct (commercial paper) and indirect (bank CDs) money market financial assets. Most MMMFs offer check-writing privileges.

22 2- 22 Types of financial intermediaries (continued) Source: Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System, Z1 Statistical Release, December 11, 1998.

23 2- 23 Types of financial intermediaries (continued) l Other Types of Financial Intermediaries –Finance Companies -- Borrow (issue liabilities) directly from banks and directly from SSUs (commercial paper) and purchase consumer and business loans. –Federal Agencies -- Sell direct claims in capital markets and lend to socially deserving DSUs (farmers, homebuyers).

24 2- 24 Transfer of Funds from Surplus to Deficit Spending Units

25 2- 25 Intermediation and Disintermediation l Disintermediation is a shift of funds from intermediated markets to direct credit markets. –Historically occurred when market rates of interest rose above the Regulation Q limits placed on the rates that depository institutions could legally pay. –More recently, gross disintermediation has occurred as SSUs shift funds from one financial intermediary (e.g., commercial banks) to another financial intermediary (e.g., mutual funds).

26 2- 26 Relative Size of Financial Intermediaries in the U.S. Source: Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System, Z1 Statistical Release, December 11, 1998.

27 2- 27 Risks faced by Financial Institutions l Credit or default risk is the risk that a direct DSU issuer will not pay as agreed, thus affecting the rate of return on a loan or security. l Interest rate risk is the risk of fluctuations in a security's price or reinvestment income caused by changes in market interest rates. l Liquidity risk is the risk that the financial institution will be unable to generate sufficient cash flow to meet required cash outflows.

28 2- 28 Risks faced by Financial Institutions (continued) l Foreign exchange risk is the risk that foreign exchange rates will vary in the future affecting the profit of the financial institution. l Political risk is the cost or variation in returns caused by actions of sovereign governments or regulators.


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