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Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.1 Power Point Slides for: Financial Institutions, Markets, and Money, 9 th Edition Authors: Kidwell, Blackwell, Whidbee & Peterson Prepared by: Babu G. Baradwaj, Towson University And Lanny R. Martindale, Texas A&M University
CHAPTER 1 An Overview of Financial Markets and Institutions
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.3 The Financial System Provides for efficient flow of funds from saving to investment by bringing savers and borrowers together via financial markets and financial institutions.
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.4 Exhibit 1.1 – Transfer of Funds
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.5 Basic components of the financial system: Markets and institutions. Financial markets are markets for financial instruments, also called financial claims or securities. Financial institutions (also called financial intermediaries) facilitate flows of funds from savers to borrowers.
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.6 Economic units with financial needs: Households, Businesses, Governments. Households supply labor, demand products, and save for the future. Businesses demand labor, supply products, and invest in productive assets. Governments collect taxes and provide “public goods” (e.g. education, defense).
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.7 Budget positions creating financial needs of economic units: Surplus or deficit. Surplus spending units ( SSUs) have income for the period that exceeds spending, resulting in savings. Other words for “SSU” are saver, lender, or investor. Most SSUs are households. Deficit spending units (DSUs) have spending for the period that exceeds income. Another word for “DSU” is “borrower”. Most DSUs are businesses or governments.
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.8 Financial claims arise as SSUs lend to DSUs. SSU’s claim against DSU is liability to DSU and asset to SSU. One’s liability is another’s asset: What is payable by one is receivable by another. Assets arising this way are “financial assets.” The financial system “balances”- total financial assets equal total liabilities.
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.9 Marketability: Ease with which a financial asset may be sold to another SSU. Ability to resell financial claims makes them more liquid by giving SSUs choices: Match maturity of claim to planned investment period; Buy claim with longer maturity, but sell at end of period; or Buy claim with shorter maturity, then reinvest.
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.10 Direct Financing: The simplest way for funds to flow. DSU and SSU find each other and bargain SSU transfers funds directly to DSU DSU issues claim directly to SSU Preferences of both must match as to- -Amount -Maturity -Risk -Liquidity
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.11 Direct Financing: efficient for large transactions if preferences match. DSUs and SSUs “seize the day”— DSUs fund desired projects immediately. SSUs earn timely returns on savings. Direct markets are “wholesale” markets. Transactions typically $1 million or more. Institutional arrangements common.
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.12 Institutional arrangements common in direct finance. Private placements are simplest. Investment bankers “underwrite” new issues of securities. Brokers and dealers bring buyers and sellers of direct claims together.
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.13 Private placements are simplest. DSU sells whole security issue to one investor or investor group. Advantages include speed and low transactions costs.
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.14 Investment bankers “underwrite” new issues of securities. Buy entire issues of securities from DSUs Find SSUs to buy securities at higher price Profit from difference - “underwriting spread”
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.15 Brokers and dealers Brokers buy or sell at best possible price for their clients. Dealers “make markets” by carrying inventories of securities. buy at “bid price;” sell at “ask price” “Bid-ask spread” is dealer’s gross profit
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.16 Problem with direct financing: DSUs and SSUs cannot always match preferences. Not every SSU can afford “wholesale” denominations of $1 million or more. DSUs and SSUs often prefer different terms to maturity.
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.17 Indirect Financing (“Financial Intermediation”): Financial intermediaries “transform” claims: raise funds by issuing claims to SSUs; use funds to buy claims issued by DSUs. Claims can have unmatched characteristics: SSU has claim against intermediary; Intermediary has claim against DSU.
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.18 Financial intermediaries transform claims
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.19 Familiar forms of financial intermediation Commercial Banking Insurance
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.20 Commercial Banks Take deposits and make loans - Depositors are SSUs Borrowers are DSUs.
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.21 Insurance Companies Issue policies, collect premiums, and invest in stocks and bonds. Policyholders are SSUs; Businesses or governments are DSUs.
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.22 Benefits of financial intermediation are a primary rationale for the financial system. Financial intermediaries lower the cost of financial services as they pursue profit. Financial intermediaries perform 5 basic services as they transform claims.
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.23 Intermediaries lower the cost of financial services as they pursue profit. 3 sources of comparative advantage: Economies of scale Transaction cost control Risk management expertise Competition pulls interest rates down Financing less costly Projects have higher NPVs Investment in real assets boosts economy
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.24 Intermediaries perform 5 basic services as they transform claims. Denomination Divisibility – pool savings of many small SSUs into large investments. Currency Transformation – buy and sell financial claims denominated in various currencies. Maturity Flexibility – Offer different ranges of maturities to both DSUs and SSUs.
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.25 Intermediation Services, cont. Credit Risk Diversification – Assume credit risks of DSUs; spread risk over many different types of DSUs. Liquidity – Give SSUs and DSUs different choices about when, to what extent, and for how long to commit to financial relationships.
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.26 4 Major types of financial intermediaries transform claims to meet various needs. Deposit-type or “Depository” Institutions Contractual Savings Institutions Investment Funds “Other” Institutions
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.27 Depository Institutions take deposits and make loans. Commercial Banks Thrift Institutions Savings & Loan Associations Savings Banks Credit Unions
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.28 Commercial Banks Largest single class of financial institution Issue wide variety of deposit products - checking, savings, time deposits Carry widely diversified portfolios of loans, leases, government securities May offer trust or underwriting services
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.29 Thrift Institutions Closely resemble commercial banks Focus more on real estate loans, savings deposits, and time deposits
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.30 Credit Unions: Unique Characteristics Mutual ownership -“owned” by depositors or “members” “Common bond” - members must share some meaningful common association Not-for-profit and tax - exempt Restricted mostly to small consumer loans
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.31 Contractual Institutions bring long-term savers and borrowers together. Life Insurance Companies Casualty Insurance Companies Pension Funds
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.32 Life Insurance Companies insure against lost income at death. Policyholders pay premiums, which are pooled and invested in stocks, bonds, and mortgages Investment earnings cover the costs and reward the risks of the insurance company Investments are liquidated to pay benefits.
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.33 Casualty Insurance Companies cover property against loss or damage. Sources and uses of funds resemble those of life insurers, but Casualty claims are not as predictable as death claims; so More assets are in short-term, easily marketable investments
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.34 Pension Funds help workers plan for retirement. Workers and/or employers make contributions, which are pooled and invested in stocks, bonds, and mortgages Net of administrative costs, investment earnings are reinvested and compounded Retirement benefits replace paychecks (at least partly)
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.35 Investment Funds help small investors share the benefits of large investments. Mutual Funds provide intermediated access to various capital markets shareholders’ money is pooled and invested in stocks, bonds, or other securities according to some objective Money Market Mutual Funds (“MMMFs”) are uninsured substitutes for deposit accounts MMMFs buy money market instruments wholesale, pay investors interest, and allow limited check-writing
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.36 “Other” Financial Institutions Finance Companies— Make loans but do not take deposits; raise loanable funds in commercial paper market and from shareholders Federal Agencies— Issue “agency securities” backed by government and lend at sub-market rates for favored social purposes
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.37
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Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.39 Financial Markets are classified in several ways. Primary and Secondary Organized and Over-the-Counter Spot and Futures Options Foreign Exchange International and Domestic Money and Capital
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.40 Primary and Secondary Markets Primary markets are where financial claims are “born”: DSUs receive funds, claims are first issued Secondary markets are where financial claims “live”—are resold and repriced Claims become more liquid because SSUs can set their own holding periods Trading sets prices and yields of widely held securities
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.41 Organized and Over-the-Counter Markets Organized Exchanges: physical, relatively exclusive. Physical trading floor and facilities available to members of exchange, for securities listed on exchange. New York Stock Exchange Chicago Board of Trade (futures) OTC Markets: virtual, relatively inclusive. Decentralized network available to any licensed dealer willing to buy access and obey rules, for wide range of securities. The NASDAQ is a famous OTC market.
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.42 Spot and Futures Markets Spot Markets: immediate payment for immediate delivery Futures or Forward Markets: immediate payment for promise of future delivery “Futures” contracts: standardized as to amounts, forms, and dates; trade on organized exchanges “Forward” contracts: individualized between parties with particular needs
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.43 Option Markets Rights in underlying securities or commodities— writer grants owner some exclusive right for some certain time Main types of options: Puts (options to sell) Calls (options to buy) Options on listed securities and widely held commodities trade actively on organized exchanges
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.44 Foreign Exchange Markets Any currency is convertible to any other at some exchange rate “Forex” involves spot, future, forward, and option markets
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.45 International and Domestic Markets Help participants diversify both sources and uses of funds Examples of major international markets: Eurodollars—US dollars deposited outside U.S. Eurobonds—bonds issued outside US but denominated in $US
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.46 Money and Capital Markets Money markets: wholesale markets for short-term debt instruments resembling money itself Capital markets: where “capital goods” are permanently financed through long-term financial instruments (“Capital goods”—real assets held long-term to produce wealth—land, buildings, equipment, etc.)
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.47 Money Markets Help participants adjust liquidity— DSUs borrow short-term to fund current operations SSUs lend short-term to avoid holding idle cash Common characteristics of money market instruments— Short maturities (usually 90 days or less) High liquidity (active secondary markets) Low risk (and consequently low yield) Dealer/OTC more than organized exchange
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.48 Examples of Major Money Market Instruments Treasury Bills Negotiable Certificates of Deposit Commercial Paper Federal Funds (“Fed Funds”)
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.49
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.50 Money Market Balance Sheet Position of Major Participants
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.51 Capital Markets Help participants build wealth DSUs seek long-term financing for capital projects SSUs seek highest possible return for given risk Differences from money markets— Long maturities (5 to 30 years) Less liquidity (secondary markets active but more volatile) Higher risk in most cases (with higher potential yield) Traded “wholesale” and “retail” on organized exchanges and in OTC markets
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.52 Examples of Major Capital Market Instruments Common stock Corporate bonds Municipal bonds Mortgages
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.53
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.54 Efficiency in financial markets Allocational Efficiency: highest/best use of funds DSUs try to fund projects with best cost/benefit ratios SSUs try to invest for best possible return for given maturity and risk Informational Efficiency: prices reflect relevant information Informationally efficient markets reprice quickly on new information; informationally inefficient markets offer opportunities to buy “underpriced” assets or sell “overpriced” assets Operational Efficiency: transactions costs minimized
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.55 Risks of Financial Institutions Credit or default risk: risk that a DSU may not pay as agreed Interest rate risk: fluctuations in a security's price or reinvestment income caused by changes in market interest rates Liquidity risk: risk that a financial institution may be unable to disburse required cash outflows, even if essentially profitable
Copyright© 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.56 Risks of Financial Institutions, cont. Foreign exchange risk: effect of exchange rate fluctuations on profit of financial institution Political risk: risk of government or regulatory action harmful to interests of financial institution.
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