Presentation on theme: "Participles are: Verbal Adjectives Verbs that retain some of their “verbness” Transformed into adjectives. These hybrids now function grammatically as."— Presentation transcript:
Participles are: Verbal Adjectives Verbs that retain some of their “verbness” Transformed into adjectives. These hybrids now function grammatically as adjectives.
How do we make these cool hybrids everybody’s asking Today, we’ll focus on Perfect Passive Participles
Remember: participles are verbs transformed into adjectives, so we start with a verb do,dedi,dare,datus The fourth principal part is the abbreviated Perfect Passive Participle (PPP) The –us form is the Nominative, Masculine, Singular of a 1 st & 2 nd declension adjective Expanded it looks like all other first and second declension adjectives datus -a, -um
Once we’ve transformed our verb into an adjective, it can be declined like any other adjective using the endings we already know! do, dare, dedi, datus, -a, -um 1st Decl Fem SingPlural Nom.datadatae Gen.dataedatarum Dat.dataedatis Acc.datamdatas Abl.datādatis 2nd Decl Masc SingPlural Nom.datusdati Gen.datidatorum Dat.datodatis Acc.datumdatos Abl.datodatis 2nd Decl Neut SingPlural Nom.datumdata Gen.datidatorum Dat.datodatis Acc.datumdata Abl.datodatis
Perfect Passive Participles are always translated by the formula “having been insert past participle of the verb here.” do, dare, dedi, datum = to give So any form of the datus, -a, -um participle is translated as “having been given” Rosae datae sunt beatae = The roses, having been given, are beautiful.
Remember: participles are verbs transformed into adjectives. As adjectives, they follow the same rules as other Latin adjectives. That means they have to agree with the nouns they modify in Case, Number, and Gender. Rosae datae sunt beatae = The roses, having been given, are beautiful. In our example datae is the adjective modifying rosae. So they agree in Case, Number, and Gender. Both are Nominative, Plural, Feminine.
Remember: participles are verbs transformed into adjectives. But unlike other adjectives, participles can still do verb-like things. They can still have direct and indirect objects. Let’s give our participle an indirect object! Rosae matri datae sunt beatae = The roses, having been given to the mother, are beautiful.
Memor, ā libertō excitatus, iratissimus erat. Memor, having been awoken by his freedman, was very angry. thermae, ā Romanīs aedificatae, maximae erant. The baths, having been built by the Romans were large. servus, ā dominō verberatus, ex oppidō fugit. The slave, having been beaten by the master, fled from the town.
nuntiī, ā rege arcessitī, rem terribilem narraverunt. The messengers, having been summoned by the king, told a terrible story. milites, ab hostibus vulneratī, thermas visitare voluerunt. The soldiers, having been wounded by the enemy, wanted to visit the baths.
uxor, ā maritō vexata, ē villā discessit. The wife, having been annoyed by her husband, left from the house.