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Mr. Robert Landells M.Chem (Hons) Short Presentation Summer 2012.

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1 Mr. Robert Landells M.Chem (Hons) Short Presentation Summer 2012

2 Synopsis Personal background: Theory vs. Practice:Keep it simple Meeting Your Needs: Mass Gain, Toning & Weight loss Protein:Amino Acid profiles, Protein Scoring, Isolate vs. Concentrate, Micellar Casein, Soy sources. Carbohydrate:Simple/Complex Sugar, GI & SI Index Fat:Hydrogenated/Partially Hydrogenated/Trans, MCT’s, EFA’s: CLA, ALA, GLA, Cholesterol HDL/LDL Water/Electrolytes:Daily water requirements, Pre/Mid Work out electrolytes, Post work out hydration Sleep:Growth Hormone/Repair Cycle, REM State Aerobic vs. Anaerobic:Fatty Acid burning vs. Glycogen burning, Creatine Phosphate and ATP, Max Heart Rate, VO 2 max Diet Structure:BMR, HB-Cofactor, Growth/Loss factor, Protein Turn Over Rate Doping & Banned Substances:Overview Common Supplements:Overview Example Stacks:Lean Mass, Toning/Fit, Muscle Sparring/Weight Loss Stack Medical/Dietary Conditions:What Supplement can I take if… IBS, Crohn’s, Coeliac, Vegan, Vegetarian, Diabetes (Type I or II), Hyper/Hypo-thyroidism, Renal function, Hepatic function, Allergies, Polycythaemia, Stomach Ulcers & any other GI Tract condition. Insulin (Rapid, MixTard, MonoTard), Metformin, Byetta, Pioglitazone, Mebeverine, Lotronex, Immodium, Buscopan, Colpermin, Aspirin, T3/T4, Prednisolone, Anti-Depressants e.g. Amitriptyline, Mirtazapine, Fuoxetine, Anti-Biotics e.g. Co-Amoxiclav, Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin, Oxytetracycline, Penicillin Supplement Myths:Overview

3 Personal Background: 5 Year Masters Degree (Edinburgh): Theoretical Chemistry Electives:Pharmacology (2 years) Forensic Medicine (2 years) Medicinal Chemistry (4 years) Analytical Chemistry (5 years) Relative Experiences: Consultations: B.Sc (Hons) Sports Science Students B.Sc (Hons) Physical Education Physiotherapists, Dietitians & Nutritionists SRU NABBA IFBB Premier Fitness Scotland Needle Exchange Specialist Area: Endocrinology & Ergogenics

4 Theory vs. Practice: KEEP IT SIMPLE!!!! You are the expert! No one knows your body better than you! So only you know how to keep yourself motivated in your training and diet in order to achieve your fitness and physique goals. I would offer you owe it to your self and your team?... Alternatively think of it as saving your ass from being booted by the coaches and being kicked off the team!... Just a thought! Progress takes time, keep yourself motivated!

5 Meeting Your Needs: Almost everyone’s fitness & physique goals will fall into one of three main categories: Mass gain: More specifically LEAN BODY MASS gain i.e. MUSCLE GAIN Toning: More specifically WEIGHT TRANSFER and refinement; However, this still usually involves either muscle gain or fat loss! Weight loss: More specifically removal of excess surface bodyfat & water HOW YOU ACHIEVE THIS THROUGH DIFFERENT EXERCISE REGIMES IS YOUR COACHES SPECIALTY! HOW YOU ASSIST THIS WITH NUTRITION IS PHYSIQUE BODYSHOPS DUTY. ADMIT YOUR LIMITATIONS! BE HONEST! Don’t commit to a training and nutrition protocol if you cannot stick to it! – Fail to plan, plan to fail!

6 Protein: Amino Acid profiles: A term which refers to the ratio of the essential AA and non-essential AA that is found in the product. Higher quality brands will have a profile which reflects the human skeletal muscular system. This means the body can utilise the protein more efficiently and commence growth and repair cycles almost immediately after ingestion. Protein Scoring: So how do we measure protein quality? There are a number of methods used, some are listed below. Amino Acid Score (A.A.S) This method simply evaluates quality as a comparison of amino acid composition to a reference protein. Biological Value (B.V) This is a common method used to evaluate the amount of protein kept by the body as absorbed nitrogen. Net Protein Utilisation (N.P.U) Simply a measure of retained nitrogen from your food. Protein Efficiency Ratio (P.E.R) This ratio is basically a comparison of weight gain to protein intake. Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) Bit of a mouthful but this method compares the amino acid score of food protein with the amino acid requirements of pre-school kids and is then corrected for what is required for true digestibility. - FORGET IT!!! Essential AA and Non-Essential AA: Very important! Essential AA are exactly that… ESSENTIAL! Which is to say we need to consume them through our food sources as our body cannot make them ourselves there are 9 of these and they include the BCAA’s. Non-essential are those amino’s the body can make itself. Isolate vs. Concentrate: Concentrates contain less protein on a gram for gram basis than an isolate. However, a high quality concentrate contains all sorts of interesting compounds not found in the isolates; e.g. IGF-1, TGF-ß1, and TGF-ß2. They contain much higher levels of various phospho-lipids, and various bio-active lipids, such as Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA), and they often contain higher levels of immunoglobulins and lactoferrin. The downsides of concentrate is that it has slightly less protein gram for gram than an isolate, lower B.V and contains higher levels of fat (though some of these fats may in fact be beneficial), worst of all higher levels of lactose. Isolates can contain as much as 90%+ of protein. Only whey proteins in their natural state have biological activity. Removing lactose etc and preserving BV takes great care and effort by the manufacturer. Maintaining the natural state of the protein is essential to its anti-cancer and immune stimulating activity, the protein must be processed at low temperatures if it is not to alter the natural state of the protein (denaturing). These processes include micro filtering, cross flow filtration and ion exchange. These filtration methods create isolated protein, but at the same time they take away some good compounds found in a good concentrate and can also reduce the number of amino acids present in isolate compared to concentrate. Micellar Casein Casein is the curd portion of the whey making process. It contains high amounts of glutamine but low amounts of BCAA’s compared to whey and soy. Sadly it naturally contains lactose and doesn't blend well. It is still a great protein source as casein based proteins prolong digestion and absorption which has been shown to have an increased anti-catabolic effect. Both alpha and beta forms are now in ALL high quality blended protein sources as they are useful to all genetic phenotypes! Soy Protein This protein source is neglected by comparison to the others, except for members of the vegan community. There has been a lot of new interest in soy as it has been found to have many health promoting effects. Suffice to say here that the new soy isolates may enhance production of thyroxin, lower cholesterol, increase bone density, reduce risk of heart disease and improve breast and prostate health. These new isolates also score highest in the PDCAAS.

7 Carbohydrate: First a quick note on ATKIN’S as no doubt you will all have come across it and had questions on it! HE GOT IT WRONG!!!!! Gluconeogenesis is a fantastic piece of biochemistry which should be taken advantage of but the fat sources should NOT include an abundance of saturated, trans or hydrogenated sources. He was right about NOT needing carbs to sustain life! You’ve heard of both EAA and EFA’s but have you heard of Essential Carbs? …. Why?… BECAUSE THERE ARE NONE! Gluconeogenesis can make all the glucose that the body requires to sustain life in a sedentary human being. We are CARNIVEROUS, not Herbivores! Simple/Complex Sugar: Simple sugars are glucose, fructose and short chain sugar based sources. Complex sugars are polymer (long) chains of glucose/fructose molecules. Simple sugars have a direct effect on the pancreas to release insulin; complex do not have as a pronounced effect on insulin secretion. Insulin is the most ANABOLIC hormone to the human body but it is also related to potential fat and water storage and if one consumes a high amount of simple sugar foods and causes stress to the pancreas it may lead to the disease called diabetes. GI & SI Index Glycemic Index (GI) is a measure of the ability of a food to increase insulin; Mars Bars have a GI of 100 (very insulinogenic), baked potato 1 (not very insulinogenic) Satiety Index (SI) is a measure of the ability of a food to suppress appetite i.e. make you feel full! Mars bars have a SI of 1 and baked potato 100 Insulin will be released if blood sugar levels get too high, simple sugar consumption in the region of 30g or higher will cause insulin release. But this is not ALL bad! Post ANAEROBIC workouts which are GLYCOGEN (a glucose polymer) burning will benefit from high intake of glucose and induce insulin to catalyse the reaction as follows: Insulin nC 6 H 12 O 6 ----------------------> (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) n n ≈ 300 Glucose Glycogen So this post-workout GLYCOGEN REPLENISHING method will refill muscles with Glycogen and the insulin will also help assimilate AA’s into muscle tissue hence aiding recovery mechanisms. If you add post work out protein only after anaerobic workouts then some protein will go to glycogen (glycogenic AA = Glutamine) which is not an effective use for the protein, so taking simple sugars also has a protein SPARRING effect.

8 Fat: Fats have to be in a triglyceride form before they can be metabolised. A triglyceride consists of a GLYCEROL (3 carbon) backbone and 3 fatty acids. These fatty acids determine the type and class of fat. Hydrogenated/Partially Hydrogenated: Straight chain SATURATED molecules which pack together in solid/semi-solid state. Can lead to blockages in arteries and the disease ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. This means that the fatty acids all have saturated (straight chain) bonds which make them linear in structure so they can pack together easy; hence solidify. Trans fats: This term refers to the arrangement of atoms in the molecule but suffice to say here this arrangement of atoms makes the molecule more linear in structure so they are more saturated like and hence not good for coronary health. Trans fats can be monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. MCT’s: This stands for Medium Chain Triglycerides. Amazingly they are actually saturated type fats but they DO NOT have a negative effect on coronary health. They are calorie rich and a good way of packing calories into a product. EFA’s: CLA: Conjugated Linoleic Acid. An indirect fat burner but more accurate it interferes with the enzyme Lipoprotein Lipase which is involved in the assimilation of fat in the body. ALA: Alpha Lipoic Acid. A very powerful antioxidant and also has potential to elevate insulin. GLA: Gamma Linolenic Acid. Ok, quick explanation is that it interferes with PROSTAGLANDINS to favourably filter out good nutrients and bad nutrients. Omega 3,6 & 9: Omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids are essential fatty acids (EFA’s). Our bodies cannot manufacture them, and we must consume them in our diets. Omega 9 fatty acids are not essential. Our bodies need omega 9 fats, but we can manufacture them from other sources. Omega 3 & 6 are accepted as being positive against cardiovascular health and preventing coronary heart disease. Omega 6 also has effects on inflammatory response (GLA) and Omega 9 has beneficial affects on immune responses. Cholesterol: A biosynthetic molecule which, amongst other things, is used to make sex hormones in the body. There are a few forms of cholesterol but most commonly heard of are HDL, LDL and Lp(a). HDL = GOOD Cholesterol, carries fats away from arteries to the liver. 50mg/dL and above shows good HDL level, higher the better. LDL = BAD Cholesterol. Ideally less than 100mg/dL for good health, lower the better. Above 200mg/dL is serious. Lp(a) = Actually a genetic variation of LDL so high levels of this signifies potential for fatty acid deposits in arteries. Total Cholesterol level of 200mg/dL or less shows good health, 240mg/dL and above is serious risk levels. Cholesterol ratio’s are more generally discussed and if one’s level is about 4.0 mmol/l then it is considered healthy. 6 mmol/l and above is considered risky.

9 Water/Electrolytes: Water is quite correctly termed “the giver of life”, the most important biological molecule. Pretty much everything in the body happens in an aqueous environment. For an athlete, the daily water requirements are agreed to be 1 litre per 1,000 calories consumed MINIMUM e.g. 3,000 calorie diet = 3 litres water. Electrolytes are inorganic elements which have a vast and varied function in the body. Suffice here to say they are involved in water transport, enzyme function and allow conductance so that nervous impulses can cause contraction in muscles. Pre/Mid Work out electrolytes are regularly consumed by means of isotonic drinks. Isotonic means the OSMOLALITY of the product is the same as the human body and so rehydration is rapid as there is no concentration gradient to overcome. Basically, these drinks get water and electrolytes back into the body quickly! The most common electrolytes are SODIUM, POTASSIUM, CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM & IRON but here are several others. The heart is a sodium/potassium pump so any major fluctuations on these electrolytes can cause heart failure. Sodium is also used in water regulation (Vasopressin/Aldosterone) and keeps water in both muscle and skin. Potassium is effective at selectively keeping water in the muscle and NOT under the skin! Calcium, Magnesium are involved in muscle contraction. Iron is a constituent in haemoglobin in blood Post work out hydration: CAN BE FATAL! This may initially sound strange but sweat contains a lot of electrolytes, mostly sodium (~200mcg/L) and so if one is sweating a lot over a long period of time and not replenishing water and electrolytes then they will be in a hypo-electrolytic state. If they then consume an abundance of pure water then they will further dilute there electrolyte concentration and this has been known to affect the heart electrolytes and cause cardiac failure.

10 Sleep: The body does not grow or repair (significantly) when your are awake, it only repairs when you are in a rest state. One of the main hormone’s involved is Growth Hormone. Growth hormone utilises proteins for repair of tissue and lipids as energy to drive the repair process. To optimise the amount of growth hormone secreted during the night it is best to try reach REM State. This is the last stage in the sleep cycle and and basically if you dream, you’ve hit REM state! So it is important to try relax before sleeping so you can shut down and optimise your sleep cycle.

11 Aerobic vs. Anaerobic: Fatty Acid burning vs Glycogen burning: Anaerobic is without oxygen and involves sugar burning. Lactic acid is built up during anaerobic burning (look up KREBS CYCLE). Aerobic burning is oxygen dependent and is fatty acid burning (and at the same time glycogen replenishing). Creatine Phosphate: A metabolite which donates its phosphate group to ADP to form ATP. Max Heart Rate: Basically this is a tool (very crudely HR max = 220 – age) to measure a level of intensity during workouts so you can work within different anaerobic and anaerobic thresholds, e.g 60% HR max = Aerobic and 80% HR max = Anaerobic VO 2 max: Maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) is widely accepted as the single best measure of cardiovascular fitness and maximal aerobic power. The average young untrained male will have a VO 2 max of approximately 3.5 litres/minute (45 ml/kg/min). The average young untrained female will score a VO 2 max of approximately 2.0 litres/minute and 38 ml/kg/min. These scores can improve with training but there are many contributing factors to this. Endurance is obviously important in Rugby. World class athletes typically have high VO 2 maxima. Elite male runners can generate up to 85 ml/kg/min, and female elite runners can generate about 77 ml/kg/min. Five time Tour de France winner Miguel Indurain is reported to have had a VO 2 max of 88.0 at his peak, while cross-country skier Bjørn Dæhlie measured at 96 ml/kg/min (but believed even more). By comparison a competitive club athlete might achieve a VO 2 max of around 70 ml/kg/min. To put this into perspective, thoroughbred horses have a VO 2 max of around 180 ml/kg/min. Siberian dogs running in the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race have VO 2 values as high as 240 ml/kg/min.

12 Diet Structure: How many calories do you need? BMR: Basal metabolic Rate, the number of calories used when in a sedentary state. This number of calories must be consumed to sustain healthy body function. HB-Cofactor: Harris-Benedict Co-Factor, a table with factors to multiply BMR. This value tells you how many calories you need to supply the body to account for the level of physical demand you place on it. Growth/Loss factor: This is a percentage increase or decrease you add or subtract from the value obtained when working out total daily calories and is reflective of the clients fitness or physique goals. Protein Turn Over Rate: Common question, how much protein per day? The PTOR states “bodyweight in pound x 1.818”. This is the turn over of proteins your body goes through during a full days anabolic and catabolic phases. Its easier to tell the client 2g per pound of lean bodyweight e.g 200lb man at 20% body fat requires (200 less 20% = 160lb lean muscle @ 2g/lb = ) 320g protein per day. This method will ensure maximum anabolism and minimize catabolism; +ve Nitrogen Balance. A typical calorie composition split for LEAN muscle gain is 50% protein, 20% carbohydrate (simple sugar used post workout only), 30% Fat (EFA, MCT).

13 Doping & Banned Substances: T/E Ratio’s, Active Life, Half Life, Urinalysis, Mouth Swaps, Hair Samples, Blood Samples, GC- MS, HPLC, Masking Agents, Diuretics…. to name a few. What do they test for? Blood doping – injection of red blood cells Exogenous anabolic androgenic steroids – e.g. Deca, Dbol, Winstrol, Tren… Endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids – e.g. DHT, DHEA, Testosterone Erythropoiesis-stimulating agent – e.g EPO, HGH, IGF, TGF, FGF, HGF, Insulin Beta-2 agonists/Stimulants – e.g. Salbutamol, Ephedrine, Clenbuterol Hormone antagonists and modulators e.g. Aromatase Inhibitors (Nolva, Exemestane, Arimidex) Diuretics and masking agents e.g Furosemide, Spironolactone Narcotics and cannabinoids – e.g. Morphine, Oxycodone, Hashish, THC Beta blockers – e.g Bisoprolol, Propranolol Glucocorticoids – e.g. dexamethasone, prednisolone, hydrocortisone Generally model banned substances on those listed in the IOC banned list, which can be found here for 2012: Organizations/International-Standards/Prohibited-List/ “Ignorance of the Law is no excuse to break it”

14 Common Supplements: Mass gainers, weight loss products, proteins; rapid/time released, bulgarian trib, longifolia jack, chrysin/flavones, cholostrum, chromium, vanadyl sulfate, phasolein/chitosan, ZMA, green tea, ephedrine/synephrine/octopamine/ phentermine/DMAA, milk thistle, (acyl) l-carnitine, carnosine, creatine monohydrate, kre-alkalyn, creatine ethyl-ester (malate), nitric oxide/l-arginine, l-glutamine, BCAA.

15 Lean Mass Stack: BSN True Mass, Axis-HT, Cell-Mass, NO-Xplode Very potent Testosterone booster. Estrogen suppression and SHBG suppression to ensure free testosterone levels optimised. Increased strength and size gains. Improved recuperation rate. Increased libido. Very potent NO releasing product. Pre-Workout Vasoldilator to boost circulatory system, increase “pump” and Nootropic to stimulate the mind to focus and work hard during workouts. Increased delivery of nutrients and increase toxic waste removal. High Calorie Lean Mass Gain. High quality mixed sourced protein to give sustained AA release. Mix Carbohydrate Source so no cheap insulin spiking. EFA blend to maintain anabolic state. Muscle specific creatine product; no GI tract stress. Malate ester to neutralize toxic ammonia and lactic acid. Cell volumisation effect and increased recovery aid. Very High Quality Protein, Creatine and Carbohydrate Mix with added Vits & Mins. All in one mass gain and quite unique. Can only be taken twice a day max due to creatine content.

16 Toning/Fit Stack: BSN Synthat 6, Reflex Instant Whey or Extreme Performance Whey, Cell-Mass or Extreme Kre-Alkylin, NO-Xplode, Nitrix Works Synergistically with NO Xplode to maintain high plasma NO levels. Taken 3 times daily. Very potent NO releasing product. Pre-Workout Vasoldilator to boost circulatory system, increase “pump” and Nootropic to stimulate the mind to focus and work hard during workouts. Increased delivery of nutrients and increase toxic waste removal. High quality mixed sourced protein to give sustained AA release. Low carbohydrate content. Mixes instantly in water. Sucralose sweetner. Muscle specific creatine product; no GI tract stress. Malate ester in Cell-Mass to neutralize toxic ammonia and lactic acid. Cell volumisation effect and increased recovery/strength aid. Kre-Alkylin is pH 12 buffered to keep creatine as creatine and prevent creatinine conversion.

17 Very potent NO releasing product. Pre-Workout Vasoldilator to boost circulatory system, increase “pump” and Nootropic to stimulate the mind to focus and work hard during workouts. Increased delivery of nutrients and increase toxic waste removal. Muscle Sparring/Weight Loss Stack: Reflex MicroWhey or Extreme Protein, Kre-Alkylin, NO-Xplode, Nitrix, Thermonex, CLA, Carnitine Blocks ‘Lipoprotein Lipase’ so no fat build up from excess carbohydrate intake. Muscle sparring, non-stimulant thermogenic (fat burner). Safe and powerful way of releasing stored body fat and increasing metabolic rate. Works Synergistically with NO Xplode to maintain high plasma NO levels. Taken 3 times daily. Transports fatty acids released from stored lipocytes (fat cells) into muscles to get burned. Very highly refined isolate based whey protein (86%). Ideal for weigh loss programs. Rich in BCAA’s and Glutamine. Instant mixing in water. Fortified with probiotics. Lightly flavoured

18 What Supplement can I take if… Conditions: IBS, Crohn’s, Coeliac, Vegan, (Lacto/Ovo)Vegetarian, Diabetes (Type I or II), Hyper/Hypo-thyroidism, Renal function, Hepatic function, Allergies, Polycythaemia, Stomach Ulcers & Any other GI tract condition. Drug Treatments (PRESCRIPTION only): Insulin (Rapid, MixTard, MonoTard), Metformin, Byetta, Pioglitazone, Mebeverine, Lotronex, Immodium, Buscopan, Colpermin, Aspirin, T3/T4, Prednisolone, Omeprazole/Lansoprazole, Simvastatin, Anti-Depressants e.g Amitriptyline, Mirtazapine, Fluoxetine, Anti-Biotics e.g. Co-Amoxiclav, Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin, Oxytetracycline, Penicillin

19 “How much protein is too much, I heard any more than 30g is wasted and toxic?”  Protein consumption should reflect the demands placed on you musculoskeletal system. This 30g myth was the result of a study done in the 60’s using recovering alcoholics with stressed kidney’s. Do any of you think Arnold build that physique on a few servings of 30g protein per day?...And anyone mutter “steroids” under their breath feel free to speak out and I will help set your mind straight. “I want to build muscle but lose fat”  Yes…Don’t we all! Slower process but easily done. However, can kill motivation. Focus on one or the other! Remember the more muscle you have, the more fat you burn naturally i.e your BMR increases naturally. +≠ Supplement Myths: some examples….

20 “Increase strength 300% after first drink”  BULL S*@T!!  A perfect example of marketing hype, in this case it was some creatine/zma mix. The supplement market is rife with this type of hype, prying on male ego mostly… and we all have ego lets be honest! Maximuscle and LA Muscle are the two best marketing machines and the two worst supplement companies! “Add 10lb of lean muscle in less than 3 weeks”  Even a genetic mesomorph using androgens, hgh, igf-1, insulin and prostaglandins would struggle to achieve this! “Which supplements will give me strength”  NONE! “Which supplements will make me faster”  NONE! “Which supplements will increase my biceps only”  NONE …. That are legal! LR3-IGF-1, Prostaglandins & Synthol are out with the scope of this discussion!

21 “I don’t want to get too big”  FEAR NOT!!! Supplements and Ergogenics are training aids, not magic potions! “I want to get a body like them on the cover of men’s health”  EASY….

22 –BRUTAL TRUTH ONLY! –Supplements are (depending on brand) high purity food products, that’s it! –They will give YOUR body access to the abundance and high quality nutrition YOU need to achieve YOUR aims, but it will NOT do the work for you! –YOU ARE UNIQUE! –WHAT PHYSIQUE & FITNESS GOES YOU HAVE AND WHAT WORKS FOR YOU MEAN THAT EVERYTHING YOU DO SHOULD BE TAILORED TO YOU!... AND YOUR ROLE IN RUGBY!

23 THANK YOU! Individual Consultations

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