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Chapter 9: Water and the Major Minerals. Water: Essential Nutrient Death occurs Death occurs –Without food –Without vitamins, minerals –Without water.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9: Water and the Major Minerals. Water: Essential Nutrient Death occurs Death occurs –Without food –Without vitamins, minerals –Without water."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9: Water and the Major Minerals

2 Water: Essential Nutrient Death occurs Death occurs –Without food –Without vitamins, minerals –Without water

3 Water Comprises 50-70% of the body Comprises 50-70% of the body Muscle contains 73% water (fat contains ~20%) Muscle contains 73% water (fat contains ~20%) Intracellular fluid Intracellular fluid –Fluid within the cell (2/3 of total) Extracellular fluid Extracellular fluid –Outside the cells (1/3 of total)

4 Water Content Varies By Tissue Lean muscle Lean muscle Fat Fat Bones Bones

5 Water Content Varies: By Age Newborn Newborn Adult Adult Elderly Elderly

6 Water Content Varies Daily Salt intake Salt intake Hormonal Hormonal 2 cups fluid = 1 pound 2 cups fluid = 1 pound Kidneys excrete excess Kidneys excrete excess

7 Functions of Water Almost universal solvent Almost universal solvent Dissolves Dissolves –Nutrients –Wastes –Urea –Carbon dioxide

8 Functions of Water Removal of body waste Removal of body waste –Via urine –Excrete 1-2 quarts/day –Urea excretion –Sodium excretion –Avoid concentrated urine 21/2 cups --- dark yellow 21/2 cups --- dark yellow Can promote kidney stones Can promote kidney stones

9 Functions of Water Body temperature regulation Body temperature regulation –Metabolism generates heat –Buildup is dangerous –Water absorbs any excess heat –Body secretes fluid via perspiration –Skin is cool as perspiration evaporates

10 Functions of Water Lubricant Lubricant –Joints –Synovial fluid Shock absorber Shock absorber –Amniotic fluid –Cerebrospinal fluid

11 Are You Drinking Enough? Recommend 1ml per 1kcal Recommend 1ml per 1kcal ½ oz / pound body weight ½ oz / pound body weight

12 Daily Water Losses Urine – largest loss Urine – largest loss Skin –ongoing evaporation Skin –ongoing evaporation Lungs – vapor Lungs – vapor Feces Feces

13 Sources of Water Fluids Fluids –Water –Other beverages Food Food –Fruits and vegetables –Meat –All but dried foods Metabolism Metabolism –Energy nutrients → carbon dioxide, energy, water

14 The Thirst Mechanism Not reliable Not reliable Concerns for infants, older adults, athletes Concerns for infants, older adults, athletes Athletes need to monitor their fluid status Athletes need to monitor their fluid status Weigh themselves before and after training Weigh themselves before and after training Goal is to consume 3 cups for every pound lost Goal is to consume 3 cups for every pound lost Illness (vomiting, diarrhea, fever) Illness (vomiting, diarrhea, fever)

15 Ignoring Thirst Shortage of water in the body Shortage of water in the body Increase fluid conservation Increase fluid conservation Antidiuretic hormone Antidiuretic hormone –From the pituitary glad –Forces the kidney to conserve water (reduce urine flow) Aldosterone Aldosterone –Responds to the drop in blood pressure –Signals the kidney to retain sodium (water)

16 Thirst Signal is not triggered until person loses 1%-2% of body weight in fluid Signal is not triggered until person loses 1%-2% of body weight in fluid Lost of 4% causes muscle to lose significant strength and endurance Lost of 4% causes muscle to lose significant strength and endurance Lost of 10%-12% causes heat intolerance Lost of 10%-12% causes heat intolerance Lost of 20% results in coma and death Lost of 20% results in coma and death Dark yellow urine is a sign of inadequate fluids Dark yellow urine is a sign of inadequate fluids

17 Water Safety Most municipal tap water is safe Most municipal tap water is safe The Environmental Protection Agency and local municipalities look for contaminants The Environmental Protection Agency and local municipalities look for contaminants Power to local and state authorities to advise public Power to local and state authorities to advise public

18 Water Safety Chlorine and ammonia are added to kill most microbes Chlorine and ammonia are added to kill most microbes Small cancer risk (2/1 million people) Small cancer risk (2/1 million people) Chlorine can be evaporated via boiling or standing Chlorine can be evaporated via boiling or standing Much higher risk in using untreated water Much higher risk in using untreated water

19 Water Safety Rural areas may need to have their water tested due to well contamination due to agricultural runoff Rural areas may need to have their water tested due to well contamination due to agricultural runoff Estimated that 10 million Americans may drink water that doesn’t meet EPA guidelines Estimated that 10 million Americans may drink water that doesn’t meet EPA guidelines Cryptosporidium, a parasite, sickened 400,000 people in Milwaukee; not killed by chlorine Cryptosporidium, a parasite, sickened 400,000 people in Milwaukee; not killed by chlorine High risk people are advised to boil their drinking water for one minute prior to use for drinking (HIV-AIDS, chemotherapy patients) High risk people are advised to boil their drinking water for one minute prior to use for drinking (HIV-AIDS, chemotherapy patients)

20 Alternatives to Chlorinated Tap Water Boil Boil Store overnight Store overnight Filters Filters Activated carbon Activated carbon Reverse osmosis Reverse osmosis Distillation Distillation UV sterilization UV sterilization Ozone Ozone

21 Bottled Water Expensive Expensive Environmental impact Environmental impact –Manufacture –Transport –Landfill

22 Bottled Water Sources 75% springs/wells 75% springs/wells –Ozone 25% municipal tap water 25% municipal tap water –Carbon filtered

23 Bottled Water Independent testing Independent testing –1/3 was contaminated –Bacteria –Arsenic –Organic elements Check label Check label Source Source Treatment Treatment State-interstate FDA regulated State-interstate FDA regulated

24 Water Safety Let cold water run for a minute or two before drinking or using in cooking; will reduce risk of lead exposure Let cold water run for a minute or two before drinking or using in cooking; will reduce risk of lead exposure Don’t use hot water for food preparation Don’t use hot water for food preparation

25 Water and Minerals Related 3 ways Related 3 ways –Hard/soft water –Fluid balance –Acid base balance

26 Fluid Balance Water shifts freely in and out of the cells Water shifts freely in and out of the cells Controlled by the electrolyte concentration Controlled by the electrolyte concentration “Where ions go, water is sure to follow” “Where ions go, water is sure to follow” Intracellular water volume depends on intracellular potassium and phosphate concentrations Intracellular water volume depends on intracellular potassium and phosphate concentrations Extracellular water volume depends on extracellular sodium and potassium concentrations Extracellular water volume depends on extracellular sodium and potassium concentrations

27 Na+, K+, Cl- Attract water Attract water Dissolve in water Dissolve in water Electrical charge = electrolytes Electrical charge = electrolytes

28 Cell Membranes Water permeable Water permeable Impermeable to minerals Impermeable to minerals

29 Osmosis The passage of a solvent such as water through a semi-permeable membrane from a less concentrated compartment to a more concentrated compartment The passage of a solvent such as water through a semi-permeable membrane from a less concentrated compartment to a more concentrated compartment

30 Osmosis Water moves across membrane Water moves across membrane –Low concentration to high –Equalizes solute concentration Minerals do not move Minerals do not move –Draw water across membrane

31 Acid-Base Balance Blood pH Blood pH Death Death –pH 8.0 alkalosis –pH 6.8 acidosis Buffers Buffers –Protein –Electrolytes –Gather/release hydrogen ions

32 Minerals: Definition Inorganic (contain no carbon) Inorganic (contain no carbon) Separate elements Separate elements Required in small amounts Required in small amounts

33 Functions of Minerals Cofactors Cofactors Bone and connective tissue Bone and connective tissue Blood Blood Metabolism Metabolism Growth & reproduction Growth & reproduction Function/formation nerves & muscles Function/formation nerves & muscles Cell membrane transport Cell membrane transport Minerals function together: Minerals function together: –Bone formation –Electrolytes –Blood

34 Minerals in the Body

35 Mineral Classification Major minerals Major minerals –Require >100 mg /day (1/50 of a teaspoon) –Calcium, phosphorus Trace minerals Trace minerals –Require < 100 mg/day –Iron, zinc

36 Bioavailability of Minerals Not all ingested minerals can be absorbed Not all ingested minerals can be absorbed Example: only 5% of the calcium in spinach is absorbed because spinach contains oxalic acid Example: only 5% of the calcium in spinach is absorbed because spinach contains oxalic acid About 25% of dietary iron is absorbed (better absorbed from dairy products) About 25% of dietary iron is absorbed (better absorbed from dairy products)

37 Bioavailability of Minerals Presence of binders and dietary fiber Presence of binders and dietary fiber Minerals in animal products are better absorbed Minerals in animal products are better absorbed The more refined a food is, the fewer minerals The more refined a food is, the fewer minerals Only iron is added back to enriched grain products Only iron is added back to enriched grain products

38 Fiber-Mineral Interactions Phytic acid (phytate) in grain fibers can limit absorption of some minerals by binding to them Phytic acid (phytate) in grain fibers can limit absorption of some minerals by binding to them Oxalic acid: substance in plants (spinach) that binds minerals Oxalic acid: substance in plants (spinach) that binds minerals High fiber diets can decrease the absorption of iron, zinc, magnesium, and other minerals High fiber diets can decrease the absorption of iron, zinc, magnesium, and other minerals

39 Bioavailability of Minerals Mineral content of plant foods reflects the soil in which is it grown Mineral content of plant foods reflects the soil in which is it grown Mineral/mineral competition: too much of one mineral can interfere with the absorption of another Mineral/mineral competition: too much of one mineral can interfere with the absorption of another –Zinc interferes with copper absorption Presence of vitamins: example, vitamin C enhances absorption of iron Presence of vitamins: example, vitamin C enhances absorption of iron

40 Toxicity of Minerals Trace minerals are more toxic Trace minerals are more toxic Result of supplementation Result of supplementation Presence of contaminants in supplements Presence of contaminants in supplements Look for the United States Pharmacopeia (USP)-approved brands Look for the United States Pharmacopeia (USP)-approved brands

41 Iron Toxicity Men in general and older women should avoid multivitamin-mineral supplements with iron because of the risk of iron toxicity Men in general and older women should avoid multivitamin-mineral supplements with iron because of the risk of iron toxicity

42 Major Minerals

43 Sodium Table salt (NaCl): 40% sodium, 60% chloride Table salt (NaCl): 40% sodium, 60% chloride

44 Sodium 95% of ingested sodium is absorbed 95% of ingested sodium is absorbed Major positive ion in extracellular fluid Major positive ion in extracellular fluid Aldosterone regulates sodium balance Aldosterone regulates sodium balance Key for retaining body water Key for retaining body water Excretion regulated by the kidneys Excretion regulated by the kidneys Muscle contraction Muscle contraction Conduction of nerve impulses Conduction of nerve impulses

45 Deficiency of Sodium Rare Rare Persistent vomiting/ diarrhea Persistent vomiting/ diarrhea Excessive perspiration (losing 2-3% of body weight) Excessive perspiration (losing 2-3% of body weight) Depletion of sodium in the body Depletion of sodium in the body Muscle cramp, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, shock, coma Muscle cramp, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, shock, coma Normally kidney will respond by conserving sodium Normally kidney will respond by conserving sodium

46 Correcting Deficiency Pedialyte for children Pedialyte for children Gatorade for adults Gatorade for adults Salt foods Salt foods

47 Dietary Sources of Sodium Average American eats 4-6 grams sodium in foods and softened water Average American eats 4-6 grams sodium in foods and softened water 20% comes from salt added in cooking or at the table 20% comes from salt added in cooking or at the table 35-80% comes from processed foods 35-80% comes from processed foods 4-27% comes from water (issue at 500 mg level if water contains more than 40 ppm (40 mg or 2 mEq/liter) 4-27% comes from water (issue at 500 mg level if water contains more than 40 ppm (40 mg or 2 mEq/liter)

48 Sodium Content of Fresh Foods

49 Sodium Content of Processed Foods

50 Sodium Needs Body only needs mg/day Body only needs mg/day Minimum requirement is 500 mg/day Minimum requirement is 500 mg/day Daily Value is 2400 mg/day Daily Value is 2400 mg/day Typical intake is mg/day Typical intake is mg/day

51 Sodium Adaptation Today’s salt is tomorrow’s urine Today’s salt is tomorrow’s urine People can adjust to the lower salt taste People can adjust to the lower salt taste

52 “Salt Sensitive” 10%-15% of adults are (particularly African Americans) 10%-15% of adults are (particularly African Americans) High sodium intake leads to fluid retention and high blood pressure High sodium intake leads to fluid retention and high blood pressure Recommend 2-3 gm sodium per day Recommend 2-3 gm sodium per day Recommended for all individuals Recommended for all individuals High intake of sodium (>2000 mg) increases calcium loss High intake of sodium (>2000 mg) increases calcium loss Check your blood pressure regularly Check your blood pressure regularly

53 Potassium Positive ion in the intracellular fluid Positive ion in the intracellular fluid Functions in fluid balance and nerve impulse transmission Functions in fluid balance and nerve impulse transmission Associated with lowering blood pressure Associated with lowering blood pressure 90% of potassium consumed is absorbed 90% of potassium consumed is absorbed

54 Food Sources and Need for Potassium Found in fruits, vegetables, milk, grains, meats, dried beans Found in fruits, vegetables, milk, grains, meats, dried beans Minimum requirement is 2000 mg/day Minimum requirement is 2000 mg/day Daily Value is 3500 mg/day Daily Value is 3500 mg/day Typical intake is mg/day Typical intake is mg/day Excess potassium is excreted by the kidneys Excess potassium is excreted by the kidneys

55 Potassium Pyramid

56 High Potassium Foods Baked potato: 844 mg Baked potato: 844 mg Milk: 377 mg Milk: 377 mg Raisins: 825 mg Raisins: 825 mg Spinach: 419 mg Spinach: 419 mg Sweet potato: 397 mg Sweet potato: 397 mg Tomato: 254 mg Tomato: 254 mg Tomato Juice: 400 mg Tomato Juice: 400 mg Beer: 128 mg Beer: 128 mg Coffee: 96 mg Coffee: 96 mg Chocolate: 174 mg Chocolate: 174 mg Waffle: 146 mg Waffle: 146 mg Eggnog: 420 mg Eggnog: 420 mg Vegetable soup: 337 mg Vegetable soup: 337 mg

57 Potassium Deficiency Rare Rare Use of diuretics Use of diuretics Alcoholic, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa Alcoholic, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa Loss of appetite, muscle cramps, confusion, constipation, irregular heart beat Loss of appetite, muscle cramps, confusion, constipation, irregular heart beat

58 Chloride Negative ion for the extracellular fluid Negative ion for the extracellular fluid Components of hydrochloric acid (HCl), immune response, nerve function Components of hydrochloric acid (HCl), immune response, nerve function Excess is excreted by the kidneys/perspiration Excess is excreted by the kidneys/perspiration

59 Chloride Minimum requirement is 700 mg/day Minimum requirement is 700 mg/day Much is obtained from salt consumption (table salt is 60% chloride) Much is obtained from salt consumption (table salt is 60% chloride) High intake may cause high blood pressure High intake may cause high blood pressure

60 Hypertension Systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure Systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure Optimal is less than 120 / 80 mm Hg Optimal is less than 120 / 80 mm Hg HTN is a sustained systolic pressure of >140mm Hg or >90 mm Hg for diastolic HTN is a sustained systolic pressure of >140mm Hg or >90 mm Hg for diastolic

61 Hypertension 95% of all HTN have no clear cause (primary or essential HTN) 95% of all HTN have no clear cause (primary or essential HTN) Secondary HTN: related to other conditions, like kidney disease Secondary HTN: related to other conditions, like kidney disease

62 Why Control Blood Pressure? Silent disease (may have no symptoms) Silent disease (may have no symptoms) Causes cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, stroke, retinopathy, declining brain function Causes cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, stroke, retinopathy, declining brain function African Americans most at risk African Americans most at risk

63 Causes of HTN Aging Aging Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis Obesity (increased fat mass and circulation) Obesity (increased fat mass and circulation) Elevated insulin (insulin resistant adipose cells) Elevated insulin (insulin resistant adipose cells) Inactivity Inactivity Excess alcohol (usually reversible) Excess alcohol (usually reversible)

64 Sodium and Blood Pressure Unclear if it is sodium or chloride that is responsible Unclear if it is sodium or chloride that is responsible Increases blood pressure with intake Increases blood pressure with intake Consume no more than 2400 mg/day Consume no more than 2400 mg/day Increased blood pressure to excrete sodium needed for sensitive people? Increased blood pressure to excrete sodium needed for sensitive people? Fluid retention leads to increased blood volume Fluid retention leads to increased blood volume

65 Lifestyle Interventions in Hypertension Weight loss of as little as pounds may normalize blood pressure Weight loss of as little as pounds may normalize blood pressure Regular physical activity Regular physical activity Avoid excess alcohol Avoid excess alcohol

66 Other Minerals and HTN >1000 mg calcium a day lowers blood pressure >1000 mg calcium a day lowers blood pressure 2-4 gm of potassium a day lowers blood pressure 2-4 gm of potassium a day lowers blood pressure Magnesium may lower blood pressure Magnesium may lower blood pressure DASH diet: low in sodium, high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, includes lowfat dairy products DASH diet: low in sodium, high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, includes lowfat dairy products

67 Medication and HTN Diuretic Diuretic –Reduce blood volume –Increase urine output Slows heart rate Slows heart rate –relaxation of the blood vessels

68 Calcium 99% is in bones and teeth 99% is in bones and teeth Makes up 40% of all the minerals present in the Makes up 40% of all the minerals present in the body body

69 Absorption of Calcium Amount in the body is dependent on amount absorbed Amount in the body is dependent on amount absorbed Requires a slightly acidic environment Requires a slightly acidic environment Presence of dietary glucose and lactose Presence of dietary glucose and lactose Increased need Increased need Upper part of the small intestine is the site of absorption Upper part of the small intestine is the site of absorption Availability of vitamin D Availability of vitamin D

70 Absorption of Calcium Normally absorb 25% of calcium in food Normally absorb 25% of calcium in food Increase to ~60% during time of need (pregnancy, infancy) Increase to ~60% during time of need (pregnancy, infancy) Estrogen increases absorption Estrogen increases absorption Parathyroid hormone Parathyroid hormone

71 Factors Decreasing Calcium Absorption Rapid intestinal motility Rapid intestinal motility High fiber intake High fiber intake Excess phosphorus Excess phosphorus Fat malabsorption Fat malabsorption

72 Factors Decreasing Calcium Absorption Vitamin D deficiency Vitamin D deficiency Polyphenols (tannins) in tea Polyphenols (tannins) in tea Menopause Menopause Aging Aging Achlorhydria Achlorhydria

73 Blood Calcium is Regulated Blood level is maintained at the price of bone calcium Blood level is maintained at the price of bone calcium Blood level will be maintained despite inadequate calcium intake (by drawing from bones) Blood level will be maintained despite inadequate calcium intake (by drawing from bones) Setting stage for future bone fractures Setting stage for future bone fractures

74 Functions of Calcium Blood clot Blood clot Nerve impulse transmission Nerve impulse transmission Muscle contraction Muscle contraction Cell metabolism Cell metabolism –Activates various enzymes

75 Building Higher Bone Mass Adequate diet Adequate diet Healthy body weight Healthy body weight Normal menses Normal menses Weight-bearing physical activity Weight-bearing physical activity Moderate intakes of protein, phosphorus, sodium, caffeine Moderate intakes of protein, phosphorus, sodium, caffeine Non-smoker Non-smoker Lower the use of certain medications Lower the use of certain medications

76 Other Roles of Calcium May lower blood pressure May lower blood pressure May reduce colon cancer May reduce colon cancer May reduce PMS symptoms May reduce PMS symptoms May lower blood cholesterol May lower blood cholesterol May reduce kidney stones May reduce kidney stones Reduce lead absorption Reduce lead absorption

77 Osteoporosis Calcium deficiency Calcium deficiency “A pediatric disease with geriatric consequences” “A pediatric disease with geriatric consequences” Leads to ~1.3 million fractures / year Leads to ~1.3 million fractures / year Slender, inactive women who smoke are most at risk Slender, inactive women who smoke are most at risk “Less bones” “Less bones”

78 Osteoporosis

79 Bone Structure

80 Bone Strength Dependent on bone mass and bone mineral density Dependent on bone mass and bone mineral density The more there is, the stronger the bone The more there is, the stronger the bone

81 Bone Growth and Mass Rapid and continual throughout adolescence Rapid and continual throughout adolescence Peak bone mass: highest attainable density Peak bone mass: highest attainable density –First 3 decades of life Determined by gender, race, familial pattern, other genetic factors Determined by gender, race, familial pattern, other genetic factors

82 Bone Growth and Mass Bone loss begin ~age 30 Bone loss begin ~age 30 Women experience increased bone loss after menopause Women experience increased bone loss after menopause DEXA bone scan DEXA bone scan No noticeable symptoms No noticeable symptoms

83 Types of Osteoporosis Type I (postmenopausal) Type I (postmenopausal) –Occurs after menopause Type II (senile) Type II (senile) –Occurs with age in men and women

84 Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Age Age Gender Gender Race Race Inactivity Inactivity Low body weight Low body weight Diet low in calcium Diet low in calcium Family history Family history Early menopause; absence of menses Early menopause; absence of menses Low testosterone levels in men Low testosterone levels in men Anorexia, bulimia Anorexia, bulimia Some medications Some medications Cigarette smoking Cigarette smoking Excessive alcohol consumption Excessive alcohol consumption Caffeine, sodium Caffeine, sodium High protein diet High protein diet

85 Diet and Lifestyle Factors Adequate diet (Ca, vitamin D) Adequate diet (Ca, vitamin D) Healthy body weight Healthy body weight Correct hormonal irregularities Correct hormonal irregularities Normal menses Normal menses Weight-bearing and resistance physical activity Weight-bearing and resistance physical activity Don’t smoke Don’t smoke Limit excessive intake of protein, phosphorus, sodium, caffeine, wheat bran, and alcohol Limit excessive intake of protein, phosphorus, sodium, caffeine, wheat bran, and alcohol

86 Prevention Regular menstruation Regular menstruation Weight-bearing exercise (but does not compensate for lack of menstruation) Weight-bearing exercise (but does not compensate for lack of menstruation) Smoking lowers estrogen concentration in the blood Smoking lowers estrogen concentration in the blood Alcohol is toxic to bone cells Alcohol is toxic to bone cells Estrogen replacement therapies Estrogen replacement therapies Accurate measurement of height Accurate measurement of height

87 Medication Estrogen Estrogen –Slows bone turnover Fosamax (bisphosphonates) Fosamax (bisphosphonates) –Slows bone breakdown Evista (selective estrogen receptor modulators) Evista (selective estrogen receptor modulators) –Slows bone turnover Calcitonin Calcitonin –Inhibits bone breakdown Side effects Side effects

88 Diet and Lifestyle Factors Adequate diet (Ca, vitamin D) Adequate diet (Ca, vitamin D) Healthy body weight Healthy body weight Normal menses Normal menses Weight-bearing physical activity Weight-bearing physical activity Don’t smoke Don’t smoke Limit excessive intake of protein, phosphorus, sodium, caffeine, wheat bran, and alcohol Limit excessive intake of protein, phosphorus, sodium, caffeine, wheat bran, and alcohol

89 Food Sources of Calcium Dairy products Dairy products Kale, collard, mustard greens Kale, collard, mustard greens Calcium fortified foods Calcium fortified foods Tofu (if made with calcium carbonate) Tofu (if made with calcium carbonate) Canned fish Canned fish

90 Food Sources of Calcium Dairy foods provide 75% of the calcium in the American diet Dairy foods provide 75% of the calcium in the American diet

91 Calcium Supplement Recommended for people who cannot incorporate Ca+ into their diets Recommended for people who cannot incorporate Ca+ into their diets Not recommended with high iron meal Not recommended with high iron meal Calcium carbonate (40% calcium) Calcium carbonate (40% calcium) –For those with ample stomach acid –Found in antacids Calcium citrate (21% calcium) Calcium citrate (21% calcium) –Enhanced absorption due to acidity content –Recommended for elderly

92 Risk With Calcium Supplements Lead contamination Lead contamination No FDA regulation No FDA regulation Oyster shell Oyster shell Bonemeal Bonemeal Look for United States Pharmacopoeia seal of approval Look for United States Pharmacopoeia seal of approval

93 Calcium Needs Daily Value is 1000 mg/day Daily Value is 1000 mg/day Adequate Intake is mg/day for adults Adequate Intake is mg/day for adults Adequate Intake is 1300 mg/day for adolescents (9-18 yrs. old) Adequate Intake is 1300 mg/day for adolescents (9-18 yrs. old) Average intake range from mg/day for women and mg/day for men Average intake range from mg/day for women and mg/day for men

94 Phosphorus Body absorption is based on body’s need (70%-90%) Body absorption is based on body’s need (70%-90%) No disease associated with deficiency No disease associated with deficiency May contribute to bone loss in elderly women May contribute to bone loss in elderly women Vitamin D enhances absorption Vitamin D enhances absorption Component of ATP, cell membrane, and bone Component of ATP, cell membrane, and bone

95 Food Sources of Phosphorus Widely available in foods Widely available in foods Dairy, bakery products, sodas, and meats Dairy, bakery products, sodas, and meats Some from food additives Some from food additives Most difficult to limit intake Most difficult to limit intake RDA is 700 mg/day for adults RDA is 700 mg/day for adults Daily Value is 1000 mg Daily Value is 1000 mg Current intake exceeds RDA Current intake exceeds RDA Deficiency highly unlikely Deficiency highly unlikely

96 Toxicity of Phosphorus Problem for individuals with inefficient kidney function Problem for individuals with inefficient kidney function Phosphate ions bind calcium Phosphate ions bind calcium Chronic imbalance may lead to bone loss (Ca+/phos ratio) Chronic imbalance may lead to bone loss (Ca+/phos ratio) Upper Level is 3-4 g/day Upper Level is 3-4 g/day

97 Magnesium Primarily in green leafy plants Primarily in green leafy plants Absorption based on body’s needs (40%-60%) Absorption based on body’s needs (40%-60%) Absorption enhanced by vitamin D Absorption enhanced by vitamin D Kidneys regulate blood concentration of magnesium Kidneys regulate blood concentration of magnesium Alcohol increases loss in the urine Alcohol increases loss in the urine Much stored in the bones Much stored in the bones

98 Functions of Magnesium Aids in many enzyme reactions Aids in many enzyme reactions Potassium and calcium metabolism Potassium and calcium metabolism Proper nerve and cardiac functions Proper nerve and cardiac functions Insulin release from the pancreas Insulin release from the pancreas May dilate arteries May dilate arteries May prevent heart rhythm abnormalities May prevent heart rhythm abnormalities

99 Deficiency of Magnesium Develops slowly Develops slowly Irregular heartbeat Irregular heartbeat Decreased blood pressure Decreased blood pressure Weakness, muscle spasms, disorientation, nausea, vomiting, seizures Weakness, muscle spasms, disorientation, nausea, vomiting, seizures

100 Food Sources of Magnesium Plant products: Whole grains, vegetables, nuts, seeds Plant products: Whole grains, vegetables, nuts, seeds Hard tap water Hard tap water Dairy, chocolate, meat Dairy, chocolate, meat RDA for women is 320 mg/day RDA for women is 320 mg/day RDA for men is 400 mg/day RDA for men is 400 mg/day Daily Value is 400 mg Daily Value is 400 mg Average intake is lower than the RDA Average intake is lower than the RDA

101 Magnesium Pyramid

102 Too Much or Too Little Magnesium Magnesium loss Magnesium loss –Heavy perspiration –Long-standing diarrhea or vomiting –Alcoholism –Disorientation, weakness, muscle pain, poor heart function Toxicity Toxicity –Caused by medication

103 Sulfur Found in amino acids and vitamins Found in amino acids and vitamins Acid-base balance Acid-base balance Drug detoxifying pathways Drug detoxifying pathways Part of a natural diet, primarily from protein Part of a natural diet, primarily from protein Used to preserve foods Used to preserve foods


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