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Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 7 C H A P T E R Nutrients Involved in Fluid and Electrolyte Balance and In Depth
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Fluids Substances composed of freely moving molecules Have the ability to conform to the shape of the container that holds them There are different types of fluids in our bodies
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Fluids 50–70% of a healthy adults body is composed of fluids About two-thirds of this fluid is within body cells and is called intracellular fluid The remaining one-third is extracellular fluid PLAY Intracellular and Extracellular Fluid
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Components of Body Fluid
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Fluids Extracellular fluids include Tissue fluid found between the cells within tissues and organs of the body Plasma, the fluid portion of blood that carries the blood cells
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Fluids The body fluid composition of tissue varies by Tissue typelean tissues have higher fluid content than fat tissues Gendermales have more lean tissue and therefore more body fluid Agelean tissue is lost with age and body fluid is lost with it
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Electrolytes Body fluid is composed of Water Electrolytes: mineral salts dissolved in water, including Sodium Potassium Chloride Phosphorus PLAY Fluids and Electrolytes
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Electrolytes Electrolytes carry electrical charges. Sodium (Na + ) and potassium (K + ) are positively charged Chloride (Cl – ) and phosphorus (HPO 4 2–, phosphate) are negatively charged PLAY Electrolytes in Water Balance
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Electrolytes In intracellular fluid, K + and HPO 4 2– are the predominant electrolytes In extracellular fluid, Na + and Cl – predominate There is a slight electrical charge difference on either side of the cell membrane
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Functions of Fluids Fluids dissolve and transport substances Water is an excellent solvent because it can dissolve many different substances The dissolved materials, or solutes, include ions, carbohydrates, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Functions of Fluids Fluids account for blood volume Blood volume is the amount of fluid in the blood Increased blood volume can cause blood pressure to rise (hypertension) Decreased blood volume can cause low blood pressure
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Functions of Fluids Fluids help maintain body temperature Because water has a high heat capacity, the temperature of our body fluids remains quite stable Sweating releases heat as the evaporation of water from the skin cools the skin and blood
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Fluids Help Maintain Body Temperature Evaporative cooling occurs when heat is transported from the body core through the bloodstream to the surface of the skin.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Functions of Fluids Fluids protect and lubricate body tissues Cerebrospinal fluid protects the brain and spinal column Amniotic fluid protects the fetus Synovial fluid is a lubricant around joints Digestive secretions allow for easy passage of material
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Functions of Electrolytes Electrolytes help regulate fluid balance Water follows the movement of electrolytes, moving by osmosis to areas where the concentration of electrolytes is high This allows for the controlled movement of fluids into and out of cells Some illnesses that lead to protracted vomiting and diarrhea can alter this balance
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Functions of Electrolytes: Osmosis
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Functions of Electrolytes Electrolytes help nerves respond to stimuli Movement of Na + and K + across the membranes of nerve cells changes the electrical charge across the membrane This change in electrical charge carries the nerve impulse along the nerve cell
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Role of Electrolytes in Nerve Function
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Functions of Electrolytes Electrolytes signal our muscles to contract The movement of calcium (Ca 2+ ) into a muscle cell stimulates the muscle to contract The Ca 2+ is pumped back out of the cell after the muscle contraction
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Maintaining Fluid Balance Fluid balance is maintained by different mechanisms prompting us to drink and retain fluid The thirst mechanism occurs from a cluster of nerve cells that stimulate our desire to drink However, the thirst mechanism is not always sufficient; the amount of fluids people drink may not be enough to achieve fluid balance
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Maintaining Fluid Balance Water lost from the body must be replaced Water is lost through urine, sweat, exhalation, and feces Water is gained through beverages, food, and metabolic reactions
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Maintaining Fluid Balance Loss of water Most water is lost through urine The kidneys control how much water is reabsorbed; excess water is processed by the kidneys and excreted as urine Insensible water is lost through the skin (sweat) or through the lungs during exhalation Diuretics increase fluid loss via the urine
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Maintaining Water Balance Taking in water Most water enters the body through beverages Some foods have very high water content Metabolic water is a product of many chemical reactions in the body and contributes 10–14% of the bodys needs PLAY Water Balance
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Water Content of Various Foods
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Water Functions of water Essential for life Required for fluid and electrolyte balance and many metabolic reactions Recommended intake 1.0 to 1.5 ml for each kcal expended Varies with environment, activity level
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Water What if you drink too much water? Becoming overhydrated is rare Can result in a dilution of sodium (hyponatremia) What if you dont drink enough water? Dehydration Infants and the elderly are especially vulnerable
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. ABC News Nutrition Video Drinking Water: How Much to Drink?
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. ABC News Nutrition Video Think Before You Drink: Can Water Boost Your Brain?
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Water Intake and Output Amount and sources of water intake and output for a woman expending 2,500 kcal/day.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Sodium Functions of sodium Fluid and electrolyte balance Associated with blood pressure and pH balance in the body Required for nerve impulse transmission Assists in the transport of certain nutrients (e.g., glucose) into body cells
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Sodium Recommended intake 1.5 g/day is required Less than 2.3 g/day is recommended Sources of sodium Processed foods are generally high in sodium
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Sodium What if you consume too much sodium? Hypernatremia: abnormally high blood sodium concentration Can occur in patients with congestive heart failure or kidney disease Results in high blood volume, edema, and high blood pressure
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Sodium What if you dont consume enough sodium? Hyponatremia: an abnormally low blood sodium level Can result from prolonged vomiting, diarrhea, or sweating Has been seen in marathon athletes who consume too much water and fail to replace sodium
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Potassium Functions of potassium Fluid and electrolyte balance Very important in muscle contractions and transmission of nerve impulses High potassium intake helps to maintain a lower blood pressure Helps to maintain acid–base balance
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Potassium Recommended intake 4.7 g/day Sources of potassium Processed foods are usually low in potassium Fresh fruit and vegetables and whole grains are good sources of potassium
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Common Foods Sources of Potassium
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Potassium What if you consume too much potassium? Hyperkalemia: a high blood potassium level Can occur in patients with kidney disease Can alter normal heart rhythm, resulting in a heart attack
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Potassium What if you dont consume enough potassium? Hypokalemia: low blood potassium levels Can be seen in patients with kidney disease or diabetic acidosis Can occur when taking certain diuretic medications
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Chloride Functions of chloride Assists with maintaining fluid balance Assists the immune system Component of HCl in the stomach Recommended intake Minimum recommendation is 2.3 g/day
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Chloride What if you consume too much chloride? May lead to hypertension in salt-sensitive patients No Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) has been set for chloride What if you dont consume enough chloride? This is rare but can occur in people with eating disorders
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Phosphorus Functions of phosphorus The major intracellular negatively charged electrolyte Required for fluid balance Critical role in bone formation (85% of bodys phosphorus is found in bone) Regulates biochemical pathways by activating or deactivating enzymes Found in ATP, DNA, RNA
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Phosphorus Recommended intake Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for phosphorus is 700 mg/day Sources of phosphorus Found widespread in many foods Found in high amounts in foods that contain protein (e.g., meat, milk, eggs)
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Common Food Sources of Phosphorus
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Phosphorus What if you consume too much phosphorus? High blood levels of phosphorus can occur with kidney disease or when taking too many vitamin D supplements Causes muscle spasms, convulsions What if you dont consume enough phosphorus? Deficiencies of phosphorus are rare
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. In Depth: Fluid Imbalance Serious health problems that can occur when fluid excretion exceeds intake include Dehydration Heat illnesses
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Dehydration Dehydration occurs when water loss exceeds water intake Commonly due to heavy exercise or high environmental temperatures Infants and the elderly are more at risk
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Dehydration Other common causes of dehydration include Diarrhea Vomiting Fever Burns Poorly managed diabetes Abuse of diuretics or laxatives
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Dehydration Dehydration is classified in terms of percentage of weight loss that is exclusively due to the loss of fluids
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Classifying Dehydration
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Using Urine Color to Gauge Hydration
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Heat Illnesses Three common types of heat illnesses closely linked to dehydration are Heat cramps Heat exhaustion Heatstroke
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Heat Cramps Painful muscle cramps, usually in the abdomen, arms, or legs Develop during vigorous activity sessions in the heat Spasms can last seconds or minutes Important to stop activity immediately, cool down, and rest; cramps may signal a more serious problem
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Heat Exhaustion Typically occurs from vigorous activity in heat May develop after several days in high heat when fluids are inadequate Symptoms include cramps, weakness, vomiting, dizziness, and elevated blood pressure and pulse Must be treated promptly and aggressively to prevent heatstroke from developing
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Heatstroke Heatstroke occurs if the bodys temperature regulation mechanisms fail Occurs in hot, humid environments Symptoms include rapid pulse, hot and dry skin, high body temperature, and weakness Has been fatal for athletes during exercise in extreme heat If it occurs, provide immediate cooling and rest, and contact emergency medical help quickly
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