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Chapter Nine: Water and Minerals

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1 Chapter Nine: Water and Minerals
Identify the functions of water Describe the process by which the body regulates water intake and water excretion Identify normal causes of water loss List causes of additional (less usual) water losses

2 Chapter Eight, Cntd. Name the major minerals and the functions and deficiencies of those at risk Explain osteoporosis and the risk factors that contribute to its development Name the trace minerals and their functions and deficiencies of those at risk Explain how the use of alcohol affects nutritional status

3 Water and Body Fluids Adult body is comprised of 60% water
Water functions Transports nutrients and waste products Participant in chemical reactions (metabolism) Solvent for water soluble nutrients Maintains blood pressure and body temperature

4 Water Functions, Cntd. Lubricant and cushioning for joints
Shock absorber for eyes, spinal, and placenta

5 Water Balance Regulators Thirst—outward sign of dehydration
Diminished with age Hypothalamus monitors lack or excess Triggers pituitary to release ADH (antidiuretic hormone) when salts are too high and volume of blood or blood pressure is too low Kidneys respond by excreting or withholding fluids

6 Water Losses Losses normally occur from:
Urine—water required to excrete urine and body wastes Lungs as vapor Feces Skin in the cooling process About 2½ quarts per day

7 Recommended Water Intake
8-12 cups per day (pale yellow urine indicates appropriate dilution) Water, milk and juices are best sources Alcoholic beverages and those containing caffeine act as diuretics Fruits, vegetables, meats and cheese also contribute to water intake

8 Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
Mineral salts when dissolved in water contain electrical charges and are known as electrolytes Electrolytes and water are the most vital to life—electrolytes hold water in compartments where needed Electrolytes outside the cell are sodium and chloride Electrolyte inside the cell is potassium

9 Electrolyte and Fluid Balances
Balances can be upset by large fluid losses Vomiting Diarrhea Heavy sweating Fever Burns Wounds causing blood loss Electrolytes also help maintain the acidity pH of body fluids

10 Major Minerals Needed in larger amounts in the body Sodium:
Principle electrolyte in the extracellular fluid outside the cell Maintains acid-base balance—muscle contraction and nerve transmission Sources: processed foods, salt added while cooking (select iodized salt)

11 Major Minerals, Cntd. Sodium
Average intake is about 3300 mg and Daily Value recommendation is 2400 mg Risks of too much are high blood pressure or hypertension Choose and prepare foods with less salt—U.S. Dietary Goal

12 Major Minerals, Cntd. Chloride: Extracellular electrolyte
Usually associated with either sodium or potassium Part of HCL acid found in the stomach Best source in table salt

13 Major Minerals, Cntd. Potassium
Principal charged electrolyte found inside the cell Critical to keeping the heartbeat steady Diets low in potassium can contribute to elevated blood pressure Sources: fresh food of all kinds, especially fruits and vegetables—oranges & bananas

14 Major Minerals, Cntd. Calcium
Necessary for growth of a healthy skeleton and prevention of bone disease later in life Most abundant mineral in the body 99% of calcium found in the bones and teeth—provides rigidity 1% found in body fluids—vital to life Regulate muscle contractions Transmits nerve impulses

15 Major Minerals, Cntd. Deficiencies: Absorption can vary between 30-75%
Blood clotting Cofactor to several enzymes Deficiencies: Osteoporosis Porous, thin, fragile bones found mostly in older women Can also correlate with high blood pressure Absorption can vary between 30-75%

16 Major Minerals, Cntd. Sources:
Best are in the daily group (2-3 cups per day of fluid milk or their equivalents) Vegetables: mustard greens, kale, parsley, watercress, and broccoli Meat group: particularly sardines, including bones and poultry

17 Major Minerals, Cntd. Phosphorus 2nd most abundant mineral in the body
Excess in the diet can cause excretion of calcium—carbonated beverages and high protein diet, especially from meat sources

18 Trace Minerals Needed in smaller amounts in the body Iron:
Absorption is limited—10-15% absorbed from dietary sources—can increase with good Vitamin C sources eaten together Function: component of the protein hemoglobin that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues

19 Trace Minerals, Cntd. Deficiency—Iron deficiency anemia—most prevalent in children and pre-menopausal women RDA is mg per day Sources: Most absorbable sources are meats, poultry and fish, esp. organ meats; plant sources are less absorbable Toxicity: can cause death, especially in small children

20 Trace Minerals, Cntd. Zinc: Iodine: Multiple metabolic functions
Deficiency can cause growth retardation and affects immune function Sources are high protein foods Iodine: Integral part of the thyroid hormone, thyroxin

21 Trace Minerals, Cntd. Deficiency causes mental and physical retardation Problem in underdeveloped countries who don’t have access to iodized salt Sources: Iodized salt or foods grown in iodine rich soil; high mountain areas have little in the soil

22 Trace Minerals, Cntd. Fluoride
Necessary for normal bone and tooth development Teeth are more resistant to decay Sources: drinking water either naturally or from fluoridated water

23 Nutrition and Alcohol Abuse
Sources of Alcohol: Wine, wine coolers, beer, and hard liquor Nutritional deficiencies can result from Depression of appetite—less food eaten Interference with digestion, absorption, metabolism and excretion of nutrients Vitamins and minerals necessary for normal metabolism interfered with so fewer nutrients are available from food

24 TEST QUESTIONS Water is involve in all of the following EXCEPT:
A. Regulation of body temperature B. conversion of lipids to amino acids C. Lubricant around joints D. Solvent for minerals and vitamins

25 Test Questions Which of the following body processes in NOT dependent upon the presence of calcium in the body fluids? A. Blood clotting B. Muscle contraction C. Transmission of nerve impulses D. Transportation of oxygen in the bloodstream

26 Test Questions A deficiency of _________ is one of the world’s most common preventable causes of mental retardation A. Zinc B. Selenium C. Magnesium D. Iodine

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