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Slide 1 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

2 Slide 2 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance  Water is most abundant compound in body;  60% of body weight in males;  50% in females,  80% in infants, Volume averages 40 L in a 70-kg male

3 Slide 3 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Variation in total body water is related to:  Total body weight,  Fat content of the body,  Gender,  Age.

4 Slide 4 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Functions of Water in the Body  Transporting nutrients to cells and wastes from cells,  Transporting hormones, enzymes, blood platelets, and red and white blood cells,  Facilitating cellular metabolism and proper cellular chemical functioning,  Acting as a solvent for electrolytes and nonelectrolytes,  Helping maintain normal body temperature,  Facilitating digestion and promoting elimination,  Acting as a tissue lubricant

5 Slide 5 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Total body fluid:  Intracellular Fluid (ICF) appx. 25L  Extracellular Fluid  Plasma: 3L  Interstitial and Transcellular Fluid: 12L

6 Slide 6 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

7 Slide 7 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

8 Slide 8 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance  Osmosis – Fluid passes from areas of low solute concentration to areas of high solute concentration  Diffusion – tendency of solutes to move freely from areas of high concentration to low concentration  Active Transport – requires energy to move through a cell membrane from area of lesser concentration to greater concentration  Filtration – passage of fluid through a permeable membrane. Movement is from high to low pressure

9 Slide 9 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Osmolarity (concentration) of a solution:  Isotonic — same concentration of particles as plasma  Hypertonic — greater concentration of particles than plasma  Hypotonic — lesser concentration of particles than plasma

10 Slide 10 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance No fluid movement ISOTONIC Fluid movement into veins HYPERTONIC Fluid movement out of veins HYPOTONIC

11 Slide 11 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance  Osmosis: Movement of water through a semipermeable membrane  Diffusion: Movement of particles from high  concentration to lower concentration  Filtration  Active transport

12 Slide 12 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Osmosis:

13 Slide 13 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Diffusion:

14 Slide 14 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Filtration:

15 Slide 15 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Active Transport: (Requires energy to transfer)

16 Slide 16 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Mechanism  Fluid output, mainly urine volume, adjusts to fluid intake; antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from posterior pituitary gland acts to increase kidney tubule reabsorption of sodium and water from tubular urine into blood, thereby tending to increase ECF (and total body fluid) by decreasing urine volume

17 Slide 17 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Mechanism cont’d  ECF electrolyte concentration (mainly Na + concentration) influences ECF volume; an increase in ECF Na + tends to increase ECF volume by increasing movement of water out of ICF and by increasing ADH secretion, which decreases urine volume, and this, in turn, increases ECF volume

18 Slide 18 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Mechanism cont’d

19 Slide 19 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Mechanism cont’d  Two main factors regulate the Plasma/Interstitial Fluid (IF) volume:  Capillary blood pressure pushes water out of plasma into IF,  High protein concentration in plasma pulls water from IF into plasma

20 Slide 20 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Electrolytes  Positively charged ions (e.g., potassium [K + ] and sodium [Na + ])  Negatively charged ions (e.g., chloride [Cl  ] and bicarbonate [HCO 3   Nonelectrolytes—organic substances that do not break up or dissociate when placed in water solution (e.g., glucose)

21 Slide 21 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Electrolyte composition of blood plasma  Sodium—most important positively charged ion of plasma  Normal plasma level—142 mEq/L  Chief method of regulation—kidney  Aldosterone increases Na + reabsorption in kidney tubules

22 Slide 22 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Functions of electrolytes and their normal ranges Positive Ions (Cations) Functions in the body Normal adult range* Calcium (Ca ++ )Necessary for muscle contraction, nerve function, blood clotting, cell division, healthy bones and teeth mEq/L Potassium (K + )Regulates heart contraction, helps maintain fluid balance mEq/L Magnesium (Mg ++ )Necessary for muscle contraction, nerve function, heart rhythm, bone strength, generating energy and building protein mEq/L Sodium (Na ++ )Maintains fluid balance and necessary for muscle contraction and nerve function mEq/L

23 Slide 23 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Functions of electrolytes and their normal ranges Negative Ions (Anions) Functions in the body Normal adult range* Bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) Essential for acid base balance mEq/L Chloride (Cl - )Maintains fluid balance, Regulates acid-base balance mEq/L Phosphate (PO 4 - )Acid-base balance, cell division and transmission of heredity, nerve and muscle action mEq/L

24 Slide 24 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance  Dehydration—total volume of body fluids less than normal; fluid output exceeds intake for an extended period  IF treatment is not given, ICF volume and plasma volume decrease; dehydration occurs  Causes:  Diarrhea, vomiting, fever, or taking diuretics  Extended heat exposure,  Excessive sweating, burns  Decreased fluid intake (physical/psychological)  Age

25 Slide 25 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance  Overhydration—total volume of body fluids greater than normal; occurs when fluid intake exceeds output;  Causes:  Rapid or excessive IV infusions,  Some kidney/heart diseases,  Intentional excessive intake,  Psychological disorders

26 Slide 26 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Electrolyte Imbalance If the body's electrolytes are not in balance;  Seizures,  Irregular heartbeats,  Muscle weakness or cramps,  Confusion/lethargy,  BP changes may occur.

27 Slide 27 Mosby items and derived items © 2012 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. Electrolyte Imbalance Electrolyte imbalances can be caused by a variety of health conditions, such as;  Chronic heart or kidney disease,  Endocrine diseases (adrenal, pituitary, thyroid, or parathyroid glands),  Eating disorders,  Bone disorders.


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