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The Muscular System Support Systems Unit 2.

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Presentation on theme: "The Muscular System Support Systems Unit 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Muscular System Support Systems Unit 2

2 Vocabulary- word parts
My/o- muscle (myofibril is a muscle fiber) Ab- prefix, away (abduction) Ad- prefix, towards (adduction) Bi- prefix, two (biceps) Tri- prefix, three (triceps) Quad- prefix, four (quadriceps) Contra- prefix, opposite or against (contralateral- pertaining to the other side) Dys- prefix, bad, difficult, or painful (dysphagia- difficulty swallowing) -algia- suffix, pain (myalgia- muscle pain)

3 Vocabulary Ligament- connective tissue that holds bone to bone
Tendon- connective tissue that hold muscle to bone Tendonitis- inflammation of a tendon Sprain- stretch or tear of a ligament Strain- stretch or tear of a muscle or tendon Myocardium- heart muscle Thermogenesis- heat production Striations- stripes MRI- Magnetic Resonance imaging

4 Functions of the Muscular System
Heat Production (thermogenesis) Heat is a byproduct of muscle contraction Movement Facilitation Muscles shorten and pull on bones which produces movement Structure (postural support) Contraction of muscles keeps us upright and maintains posture

5 Functions cont. Protection of Internal Organs
Contraction of abdominal muscles causes them to become hard and offers protection to the underlying organs Other muscles con contract prior to receiving a blow thus protection bones and soft tissue. Controls the volume of hollow organs Smooth muscle surrounds our hollow organs and contractions propel the substances through them, aid in their emptying, or helps control their volume Stomach and small intestines The bladder Blood vessels

6 Types of Contractibility
Voluntary- contractions controlled by conscious thought or will Involuntary- contract due to unconscious impulses sent by the autonomic nervous system or certain specialized cells or hormones

7 Muscle Appearance Striated- stripes, muscles that on a microscopic level have cross fiber stripes Non-striated- Not having stripes, muscles cells that microscopically have a smooth appearance

8 Cardiac Muscle Forms the bulk of heart wall (Myocardium) Striated
Involuntary Cardiac fibers typically have a centrally located nucleus Intercalated discs Strengthens cardiac muscle tissue Allows for special wringing muscle contraction

9 Cardiac Muscle Tissue

10 Smooth Muscle Located in walls of hollow internal surfaces such as:
blood vessels - stomach urinary bladder - intestines Non-striated in appearance Involuntary (typically) Contractions usually move things along, from point A to point B (peristalsis)

11 Smooth Muscle Tissue

12 Skeletal Muscle Attached to bones
Striated appearance under a microscope Voluntary control (conscious control) Allow for postural support and movement of body parts, both axial and appendicular

13 Skeletal Muscle Tissue


15 Connecting Tissues Tendon – muscle to bone Ligament- bone to bone

16 Motions Peristalsis- a wave like motion by smooth muscle to advance substances Abduction- movement away from midline Adduction- movement towards midline Flexion- decreasing a joint angle Extension- increasing a joint angle Hyperextension- extension past normal extension, or past anatomical position

17 Motions Plantarflexion- specific to ankle motion, pointing the toes
Dorsiflexion- specific to ankle motion, pulling the toes towards the shin Supination- turning palm up Pronation- turning palm down Rotation- movement around an axis

18 Location and Function of Skeletal Muscles
Biceps brachii- anterior surface of arm between the shoulder and elbow, flexes the elbow Triceps brachii- posterior aspect of arm between the shoulder and elbow, extends the elbow Trapezius- attaches to the spine from the occiput through the thoracic region and to the spine of the scapula, extends or hyperextends the head and neck, (also helps with shoulder retraction and elevation and depression) Deltoid- covers the cap of the shoulder, abducts the arm Diaphragm- connects to the lower ribs and runs through the entire body, deflects the diaphragm inferiorly increasing volume of the thoracic cavity

19 Location and Function of Skeletal Muscles
Pectoralis major- attaches to the upper ribs along the sternum and to the humerus, adducts the arm Latissimus dorsi- attaches along mid to lower spine and pelvic and to the humerus, extends a flexed arm or hyperextends the arm from the anatomical position Rectus abdominus- attaches to the lower ribs and to the pelvic anteriorly, flexes the lumbar spine Gastrocnemius-attaches to the tibia and lower femur and uses the achilles tendon to attach to the calcaneous (heel bone), plantar flexes the ankle when the knee is in extension

20 Location and Function of Skeletal Muscles
Soleus- attached deep to the gastrocnemius on the tibia and uses the achilles tendon to attach to the calcaneous, plantarflexes the ankle when the knee is bent Hamstrings- posterior thigh between the hip and knee, flexes the knee – three muscles (Semimembranosus, Semitendenosus, Bicep Femoris) Quadriceps- anterior thigh between the hip and knee, extends the knee - four muscles (Vastas Lateralis, Vastus Intermedius, Vastus Medialis, Rectus Femoris) Gluteus maximus- posterior pelvis, extends a flexed thigh or hyperextends the thigh from the anatomical position

21 Anterior Skeletal Muscles

22 Posterior Skeletal Muscles

23 Diseases and Disorders of the Muscular System

24 Tendonitis Tendonitis is characterized by Inflammation of the tendons due to overuse or age-related changes of the tendon. It is common in individuals who begin a new exercise or increase their level of exercise. Age-related tendonitis is due to the loss of elasticity and the ability of the tendon to glide smoothly. Treatment includes: rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE).

25 Strains A tearing of a muscle or its attaching tendon
Occurs when a muscle receives a stress that overcomes its strength Sudden, quick heavy lifting During sports While performing work tasks

26 Degrees of Muscle Strains
First degree strain - a mild strain when only a few muscle fibers are stretched or torn. The injured muscle is tender and painful, but has normal strength. Second degree strain - a moderate strain with a greater number of injured fibers. There is more severe muscle pain and tenderness. There is also mild swelling, some loss of strength, and a bruise may develop. Third degree strain - this strain tears the muscle all the way through. There is a total loss of muscle function.

27 Muscle Spasm An involuntary muscle contraction
Also called a “Charlie Horse” or “muscle cramp” Main causes are electrolyte imbalances, dehydration and fatigue

28 Muscle Spasm cont. Initial treatment is to put the muscle that has the spasm on stretch If spasm persists ice or heat can be used Prevention incudes maintaining a proper diet, drinking plenty of water and proper conditioning Sports drinks may be beneficial during intense or prolonged exercise to help replace lost sodium due to sweating

29 Muscular Dystrophy An inherited disorder in which the muscles are missing a certain protein causing degeneration of muscle tissue Causes progressive weakness and loss of function of the affected muscles There is no cure but physical therapy can lessen the severity of the disorder.

30 Careers Orthopedic Surgeon Certified Athletic Trainer
Medical Illustrator Massage Therapist

31 Orthopedic Surgeon Medical Doctor who specializes in musculoskeletal ailments including acute, chronic, traumatic and overuse injuries Performs surgeries on musculoskeletal disorders such as ACL tears, Knee replacements, Scoliosis surgery Attends 4 year undergrad + 4 year medical school + 5 year orthopedic residency program + 1 year fellowship Salary- $300,000++ Arthroscopic surgery

32 Certified Athletic Trainer
Responsible for prevention, recognition, evaluation, immediate care and rehabilitation of injuries Work at high schools, universities, professional sports, gyms, industry, military, hospitals and clinics Bachelors Degree $35,000 + Athletic Training- Smooth Professional

33 Medical Illustrator Artists who have detailed knowledge of the human body Create graphic representations of medical or biological subjects for textbooks, pamphlets, exhibits, films, legal procedures, teaching models Pre-med/ Art Major Masters of Medical Illustrating Salary - $33,000-60,000 Job outlook is small and competitive, BUT growing because of technology

34 Massage Therapist Sports Massage
Manipulate patients body with pressure, tension or vibration manually or with mechanical aids Work in hospitals, nursing homes, sports and fitness centers, spas, beauty salons, cruise ships, private offices Graduate from accredited Massage school (8 months to 12 months)and pass License exam Can specialize in pediatric massage, sports massage…. Salary varies Where do MT work and how much do they make Sports Massage

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