2 Functions of the Muscular System Heat Production (thermogenesis)Breaking of ATP during muscle contractionMovement FacilitationMuscles pull on the skeletal leversStructure (postural support)Muscles hold parts of the skeleton in placeProtection of Internal OrgansThe abdominal muscles are thick and protect the abdominal and pelvic cavity organs
3 Types of Contractibility Voluntary- contractions controlled by conscious thought or willInvoluntary- contract due to unconscious impulses sent by the autonomic nervous system or certain specialized cells or hormones
4 Muscle AppearanceStriated- stripes, muscles that on a microscopic level have cross fiber stripesNon-striated- Not having stripes, muscles cells that microscopically have a smooth appearance
5 Cardiac Muscle Forms the bulk of heart wall (Myocardium) Striated Involuntary (typically)Cardiac fibers typically have a centrally located nucleusIntercalated discsStrengthens cardiac muscle tissueAllows for special wringing muscle contraction
7 Smooth Muscle Located in walls of hollow internal surfaces such as: blood vessels - stomachurinary bladder - intestinesNon-striated in appearanceInvoluntary (typically)Contractions usually move things along, from point A to point B (peristalsis)
12 Connecting TissuesTendon – muscle to boneLigament- bone to bone
13 MotionsPeristalsis- a wave like motion by smooth muscle to advance substancesAbduction- movement away from midlineAdduction- movement towards midlineFlexion- decreasing a joint angleExtension- increasing a joint angleHyperextension- extension past normal extension, or past anatomical position
14 Motions Plantarflexion- specific to ankle motion, pointing the toes Dorsiflexion- specific to ankle motion, pulling the toes towards the shinSupination- turning palm upPronation- turning palm downRotation- movement around an axis
15 Location and Function of Skeletal Muscles Biceps brachii- anterior surface of arm between the shoulder and elbow, flexes the elbowTriceps brachii- posterior aspect of arm between the shoulder and elbow, extends the elbowTrapezius- attaches to the spine from the occiput through the thoracic region and to the spine of the scapula, extends or hyperextends the head and neck, (also helps with shoulder retraction and elevation and depression)Deltoid- covers the cap of the shoulder, abducts the armDiaphragm- connects to the lower ribs and runs through the entire body, deflects the diaphragm inferiorly increasing volume of the thoracic cavity
16 Location and Function of Skeletal Muscles Pectoralis major- attaches to the upper ribs along the sternum and to the humerus, adducts the armLatissimus dorsi- attaches along mid to lower spine and pelvic and to the humerus, extends a flexed arm or hyperextends the arm from the anatomical positionRectus abdominus- attaches to the lower ribs and to the pelvic anteriorly, flexes the lumbar spineGastrocnemius-attaches to the tibia and lower femur and uses the achilles tendon to attach to the calcaneous (heel bone), plantar flexes the ankle when the knee is in extension
17 Location and Function of Skeletal Muscles Soleus- attached deep to the gastrocnemius on the tibia and uses the achilles tendon to attach to the calcaneous, plantarflexes the ankle when the knee is bentHamstrings- posterior thigh between the hip and knee, flexes the kneeQuadriceps- anterior thigh between the hip and knee, extends the kneeGluteus maximus- posterior pelvis, extends a flexed thigh or hyperextends the thigh from the anatomical position
21 TendonitisTendonitis is characterized by Inflammation of the tendons due to overuse or age-related changes of the tendon.It is common in individuals who begin a new exercise or increase their level of exercise.Age-related tendonitis is due to the loss of elasticity and the ability of the tendon to glide smoothly.Treatment includes: rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE).
22 SprainA sprain is an injury to a ligament, which is the fibrous tissue that connects bones to other bones.There are three grades of sprains:1st Degree Sprain = stretching of ligaments2nd Degree Sprain = partial tearing of ligaments3rd Degree Sprain = complete tear of ligaments
24 StrainsMuscle strain or muscle pull or even a muscle tear implies damage to a muscle or its attaching tendons.This can occur due to excessive pressure on muscles during the course of normal daily activities, with sudden, quick heavy lifting, during sports, or while performing work tasks.
25 Degrees of Muscle Strains First degree strain - a mild strain when only a few muscle fibers are stretched or torn. The injured muscle is tender and painful, but has normal strength.Second degree strain - a moderate strain with a greater number of injured fibers. There is more severe muscle pain and tenderness. There is also mild swelling, some loss of strength, and a bruise may develop.Third degree strain - this strain tears the muscle all the way through. There is a total loss of muscle function.
26 Careers Orthopedic Surgeon Certified Athletic Trainer Medical IllustratorMassage Therapist
27 Orthopedic SurgeonMedical Doctor who specializes in musculoskeletal ailments including acute, chronic, traumatic and overuse injuriesPerforms surgeries on musculoskeletal disorders such as ACL tears, Knee replacements, Scoliosis surgeryAttends 4 year undergrad + 4 year medical school + 5 year orthopedic residency program + 1 year fellowshipSalary- $300,000++Arthroscopic surgery
28 Certified Athletic Trainer Responsible for prevention, recognition, evaluation, immediate care and rehabilitation of injuriesWork at high schools, universities, professional sports, gyms, industry, military, hospitals and clinicsBachelors Degree$35,000 +Athletic Training- Smooth Professional
29 Medical IllustratorArtists who have detailed knowledge of the human bodyCreate graphic representations of medical or biological subjects for textbooks, pamphlets, exhibits, films, legal procedures, teaching modelsPre-med/ Art MajorMasters of Medical IllustratingSalary - $33,000-60,000Job outlook is small and competitive, BUT growing because of technology
30 Massage Therapist Sports Massage Manipulate patients body with pressure, tension or vibration manually or with mechanical aidsWork in hospitals, nursing homes, sports and fitness centers, spas, beauty salons, cruise ships, private officesGraduate from accredited Massage school (8 months to 12 months)and pass License examCan specialize in pediatric massage, sports massage….Salary varies widelyWhere do MT work and how much do they makeSports Massage
31 Vocabulary- word parts My/o- muscle (myofibril is a muscle fiber)Ab- prefix, away (abduction)Ad- prefix, towards (adduction)Bi- prefix, two (biceps)Tri- prefix, three (triceps)Quad- prefix, four (quadriceps)Contra- prefix, opposite or against (contralateral- pertaining to the other side)Dys- prefix, bad, difficult, or painful (dysphagia- difficulty swallowing)-algia- suffix, pain (myalgia- muscle pain)
32 Vocabulary Ligament- connective tissue that holds bone to bone Tendon- connective tissue that hold muscle to boneTendonitis- inflammation of a tendonSprain- stretch or tear of a ligamentStrain- stretch or tear of a muscle or tendonMyocardium- heart muscleThermogenesis- heat productionStriations- stripesMRI- Magnetic Resonance imaging