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1 Chapter 55 Neural Processing and Behavior Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
2 FIGURE 55-1: Schematic representation of possible and known reciprocal interactions among hypothalamic, pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, and gonadal hormones. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
3 FIGURE 55-2: There are two modes of hormonal action. (A) Activation of cell-surface receptors and coupled second-messenger systems, with a variety of intracellular consequences. (B) Entry of hormone into the target cell, binding to and activation of an intracellular receptor and binding of the receptor-hormone complex to specific DNA sequences to activate or repress gene expression. DAG, diacylglycerol; HRE, hormone-response element. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
4 FIGURE 55-3: Intracellular receptors mediate at least three distinct types of actions on gene expression. (A) Binding of the hormone-receptor complex to a hormone-response element, a DNA sequence that is placed in a position where receptor binding to it can enhance unwinding of the double helix and attachment of other transcription factors. (B) Binding of the steroid receptor to another protein transcription factor, for example, the fos-jun complex through protein–protein interactions, removing both transcription factors from binding to DNA. GRE, glucocorticoid response element. (C) Binding of the hormone receptor to a hormone-response element located in the middle of a site for binding of another transcription factorresponse element, such as the adaptor protein-1 (AP-1) or chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor (COUP sites), resulting in inhibition of transcription normally activated by transcription factors acting on these response elements. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
5 FIGURE 55-4: Some steroid transformations that are carried out by neural tissue. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
6 FIGURE 55-5: Formulas of four steroid hormones. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
7 FIGURE 55-6: Biosynthesis/metabolism of steroids in the CNS. The conversion of delta5P to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA) is postulated but not demonstrated. D5P and DHA inhibit and 3α,5α-THP potentiates GABA A receptor function, as summarized in Figure 55- 7. Solid arrows indicate demonstrated pathways; dotted arrows indicate possible pathways. Metabolic inhibitors of enzymes are indicated by: (Redrawn from Baulieu (1991), with permission.) Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
8 FIGURE 55-7: Schematic summary of four ways in which steroids affect cell-surface-mediated events and neuronal activity by nongenomic mechanisms. (A) Activation of GABA A receptor by 5α3α-pregnanolone. (B) Activation of NMDA receptor and inhibition of GABA A and glycine receptors by pregnenolone sulfate. (C) Activation of Ca 2+ mobilization in oocytes and spermatozoa by progesterone; the same is postulated to happen in certain synaptic endings and may be involved in the rapid, direct effect of progesterone on the oxytocin receptor. (D) Corticosterone binds to a cell surface receptor linked to a G protein, and presumably through it to a second- messenger system, in some brain cells. DA, dopamine; LHRH, luteinizing hormone releasing hormone; NMDA, N -methyl-D-aspartate. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
9 FIGURE 55-8: Structures for thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine(T 3 ). Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
10 Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 55-9: Summary of adrenal steroid effects on neurons of the hippocampus in male rats, illustrating their ability to protect and stabilize the population of the dentate granule neurons and to potentiate damage caused by excitatory amino-acid release upon pyramidal neurons. DG, dentate gyrus. From (McEwen, 1991), with permission.
11 Copyright © 2012, American Society for Neurochemistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 55-10: Summary of estrogen effects on the ventromedial nuclei related to its activation of female sexual behavior in the rat. E, estrogen. From (McEwen, 1991) with permission.
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