Presentation on theme: "The Civil War 1861-1865. Secession * Lincoln won the presidential election of 1860! Southerners UPSET! *Many Southerners believed, Lincoln would abolish."— Presentation transcript:
The Civil War
Secession * Lincoln won the presidential election of 1860! Southerners UPSET! *Many Southerners believed, Lincoln would abolish slavery. This would upset their economy and society. *December 17, 1860 South Carolina voted to secede (leave the Union). *They figured that the states voluntarily joined the U.S. and they could voluntarily leave!
Ft. Sumter Ft. Sumter is located just outside of Charleston, South Carolina, which controlled the entrance to the Charleston Harbor Before sunrise on April 12, 1861, Confederate soldiers fired the first shots of the Civil War! Fort is shelled for 34 hours before Union surrenders No casualties until Union fires a salute as they lower the flag – cannon explodes killing one and wounding others
The Fall of Fort Sumter Crisis at Fort Sumter –Commander Robert Anderson sent the message to Lincoln that Confederate leaders were demanding surrender or would attack. –Low on supplies, Fort Sumter remained in Union hands. The fort was very symbolic to both sides. –Lincoln would not surrender the fort, but would send food and other nonmilitary supplies. –Jefferson Davis would decide whether to attack and go to war or allow the symbol of federal authority to remain. The attack on the fort –Davis ordered a surprise attack before the supplies could arrive. –On April 12, 1891, the Confederate artillery opened fire on the fort, and an outgunned Fort Sumter surrendered the next day.
The Rush to War Response in the North Lincoln calls for 7500 volunteers 90 days’ service to put down the rebellion Lincoln’s political enemy Stephen Douglas supports the action, “There can be no neutrals in this war, only patriots—or traitors” Northerners rush to enlist Reaction in the South With call for volunteers, the eight remaining Union slave states now forced to choose a side Union slave states refused to provide troops to fight against fellow southerners Confederate states ready to call up men First Virginia, then Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina secede
Goals and Strategies Union Goals Needed to be carefully defined War could not center around the dispute over slavery—border states pushed to secede Fight for patriotic reasons— to save the Union Confederate Goals South wanted to be left alone with slavery unchanged Prepared to defend themselves against invasion Felt northerners would soon tire of war and withdraw
Label the States (only the states on the map in folder) Choose 3 light colors and color the North, South, and Border States. Make a key to explain the colors Choosing Sides
Civil War North Yankees, Federals, Union Billy Yanks Blue Battle tune: Battle Hymn of the Republic South Rebels, Dixie, Confederacy Johnny Rebs Gray Battle tune: Dixie
Choosing Sides North California Connecticut Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Maine Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Nevada (became free state in 1864) New Hampshire New Jersey New York Ohio Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island Vermont West Virginia (free state in 1863)*** South Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia Border States Slave states that didn’t secede Delaware Kentucky Maryland Missouri West Virginia ***
North Vs. South Assets North Population- 22 million (about 4 million of combat age) About 2,000,000 join the Union Army/Navy (about 46% of eligible men) Economy based on manufacturing (factories) 100,000 factories with about one million workers 20,000 miles of railroad and 96% of the nation’s railroad equipment The majority of coalmines and canals (needed for industry) $189,000,000 in bank deposits $56,000,000 in gold Federal income tax started! North’s Strategy: divide and conquer (preserve the Union) South Population- 9 million (5.5 million whites/3.5 million slaves) About 850,000 join Confederate Army/Navy (about 90% of eligible men) Economy based on farming 20,000 factories with about 200,000 workers 9,000 miles of railroad $47,000,000 in bank deposits $37,000,000 in gold South taxed and had to give portion of its crops to fund war South’s Strategy: survive until North quits (outlast)
Making Soldiers After the firing at Ft. Sumter, Lincoln calls for 75,000 militiamen After Ft. Sumter, four more states join the Confederacy Northerners were usually “cityboys” Southerners knew the woods, how to shoot and ride Most of the best generals left the Union Army to return to their homeland in the South Entire towns had their men volunteer together to go to war They came in their own uniforms with a variety of weapons
Later, both sides use conscription (draft) to get soldiers Men from ages were drafted; some paid people to take their place;Southern planters with many slaves didn’t have to go Boys volunteered- tricked officials (18 in shoe); some women disguised themselves as men to fight
Anaconda Plan The Anaconda Plan was proposed in 1861 by Union General Winfield Scott. He suggested that the Union should blockade Confederate ports and send gunships down the Mississippi river to divide the South in two. The South would run out of resources and surrender. This would take time, but have the minimal loss of life. "Anaconda" is taken from the way an anaconda constricts its prey.
Who is Wilmer McLean? The Civil War began on Wilmer McLean’s farm in Manassas Junction, Virginia, with the First Battle of Bull Run. A Union shell exploded in his kitchen. Wilmer McLean moved his family to get away from the conflict. Almost four years later his new home, near Appomattox Court House, Virginia, was the agreed location for General Robert E. Lee to surrender to General Ulysses S. Grant on APRIL 9, The war began in Wilmer McLean’s front yard and ended in his front parlor (living room). The Civil War resulted in approximately 258,000 Confederate deaths and 360,000 Union deaths. General Lee took off his sword and handed it to General Grant, and Grant handed it back.
Wilmer McLean Journal Entries ( 5 or more sentences for each entry) Journal Entry #1 – July 21, 1861 Write about McLean's experience and why he is moving. Journal Entry #2 – April 9, 1865 Write about McLean’s feeling about the war ending, and people plundering his house after
First Battle of Bull Run 1 st real battle of the war is south of Washington D.C. Union troops inexperienced – pick berries on way to fight! Washington socialites pack picnic lunch to watch the battle Union holds early advantage, take break, Rebels reinforce Stonewall Jackson stands firm, Union defeated Yankees run home, Rebels don’t take advantage and follow
Picnic of some of Washington's elite at the First Battle of Bull Run
African Americans were not able to fight at first, Lincoln didn’t want problems with border states and others; “White man’s war”; about 200,000 African Americans eventually fight on both sides, some 37,000 die in battle Frederick Douglass said, “Men of color to arms! Liberty won only by white men would lose half its luster.” In 1863, Lincoln lets War Dep’t form Bureau of Colored Troops; commanded by whites they fought bravely; 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment was famous- “Glory” w/Denzell Washington
The average Yank or Reb was a "white, native-born, farmer, Protestant, single, between 18 and 29." He stood about 5 feet 8 inches tall and weighed about 143 pounds. Most soldiers were between the ages of 18 and 39 with an average age just under 26. Union Army was made up of 1/5 immigrants – they were happy to fight for a country that had given them so much They included 200,000 Germans; 150,000 Irish; 45,000 English; 15,000 Canadians, and lesser numbers of French, Norwegians, Italians, Mexicans, and Poles Exact figures for the South are sketchy, but tens of thousands of Irish, Germans, British, French, Canadians, Dutch, and Austrians entered Confederate ranks. Indians fought on both sides of the battle (Ely Parker)
Army Organization Cavalry- mounted soldiers on horseback; the “eyes and ears” Artillery- the firepower of the battle; often towed behind horses Infantry- soldiers on foot fighting in close combat with guns, bayonets, and bare hands if necessary Quartermasters- provide everything the unit needs to fight- food, supplies, medical equipment, telegraph, etc. About 25 wagons per 1,000 men Engineers- build roads, bridges, and fortifications; make maps
“Cotton Diplomacy” South looks for European allies- Britain, France England decides to stay neutral South threatens to withhold cotton from England England has cotton supply from India, Egypt South’s plan backfires
Naval blockade Lincoln decides to blockade (patrol the coast letting nothing through that would help the enemy) the South Union only had 26 usable ships and 7600 sailors to maintain blockade on entire east coast around Florida to Texas Blockade runners were ships built to sneak through blockade
Battle at Sea Union controlled sea and blockaded the South, hurting the economy South made an ironclad called the Virginia, which is a ship heavily armored with iron The North already had an ironclad called the Monitor The Monitor forced the Virginia to withdraw after a minor fight at sea and kept the blockade strong
Antietam Confederates hoped for victory in North to gain European aid Unknown to the South, the North found plans of attack and planned a counterattack The bloodiest single-day battle in the war and a victory for the Union
Shiloh Confederates initiated this battle Pushed Grant’s army back Union soldiers arrived/Grant began counterattack Confederates retreat Union won greater control of Mississippi River Valley
Emancipation Proclamation In September of 1862, the Union army won a major battle, defeating Confederate forces at Antietam in Maryland. Five days later President Lincoln first discussed freeing enslaved peoples in the Confederate states. On January 1, 1863 Lincoln issued an order that has come to be called the Emancipation Proclamation. The Proclamation allowed Americans who had been enslaved to serve in the Army and Navy. About 200,000 African Americans eventually served.
Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln called for all slaves in Confederate States to be freed This encouraged southern slaves to escape This hurt the southern economy African Americans and Abolitionists praised this The Emancipation Proclamation applied only to states that had seceded from the Union. Slavery remained untouched and still legal in the loyal Border States (Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware).
Emancipation Proclamation Find the Evidence Read the second paragraph of the Emancipation Proclamation: “That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thence forward, and forever free; and the Executive Government of the United States, including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom.” Explanation: The Emancipation Proclamation applied only to states that had seceded from the Union, leaving slavery untouched and still legal in the loyal Border States (Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware).
The Road to Gettysburg: 1863
Gettysburg July 1-3, Gettysburg, PA Gen. George G. Meade [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS] Lee took offensive and led an attack in the north The South pushed the North lines back until Union stands firm at Cemetery Ridge Pickett’s Charge (day 3): Gen. George Pickett saw more than half of his 15,000 men die in failed attempt at Cemetery Ridge…”General Lee, I have no division.” On July 4, Lee began withdrawing his army. His train of wounded stretched more than fourteen miles! Grant captures Vicksburg, MS on same day July 4 th – Union now controls entire Mississippi River! Gettysburg was TURNING POINT in war – South never led another attack in the North
Gettysburg Address November 19 th 1863 to dedicate a national cemetery. Lincoln gives short (2 mins.), moving speech 5 months after the battle Reminds crowd of ideals of liberty, equality, and democracy! Dedicates himself & North to WINNING WAR and, Preserving the Union! He urges people to help preserve the nation, so that the dead will not have died in vain!
African-American Recruiting Poster
The Famous 54 th Massachusetts
Black Troops Freeing Slaves
Sherman’s March Sherman took Atlanta in Sept. 1864, Sherman’s success helps Lincoln win reelection In Nov Sherman burned Atlanta, and started the march Sherman’s March to the sea – Union army cut a path of destruction 60 miles wide and 300 miles long! 60,000 troops, 25,000 horses, 2,500 wagons, 600 ambulance carts SHERMAN WAGED TOTAL WAR – war against the enemy troops, and everything that supported the Confederates (all military and civilian resources) His troops burned crops, tore up train tracks, burned/looted homes and towns. 19,000 former slaves followed the Union army to freedom!
Sherman’s “March to the Sea” through Georgia, 1864
Sherman’s March Major General William Tecumseh Sherman On November 12, 1864, Sherman marched out of Atlanta toward the Atlantic coast. Tracing a line of march between Macon and Augusta, he carved a sixty-mile wide path of destruction in the South’s heartland.
Surrender at Appomattox April 9, 1865
Appomattox Courthouse Lee’s army is trapped between Sherman and Grant Facing starvation he decides situation is hopeless and surrenders to Grant on April 9, 1865 at Appomattox Courthouse Grant’s terms were easy – Rebels must not turn against country again, they can keep horses and guns. Grant also fed the starving Rebels! After 4 years of battle and 620,000 deaths, war is over The Civil War ends, but bitterness between North and South would linger on *** Colonel Charles Marshall is sent to find a location for Lee’s meeting with Grant. Marshall stopped the first man he saw in the deserted streets. It was Wilmer Mclean! Wilmer Mclean reluctantly offered his home: Civil War started in his front yard ended in his Parlor!
Civil War Casualties in Comparison to Other Wars
Ford’s Theater (April 14, 1865)
Lincoln’s Assassination On evening of April 14, 1865 President Lincoln goes to Ford’s Theater with his wife to see a play John Wilkes Booth, an unemployed actor and southerner sneaks into Lincoln’s theater box and shoots him in head Booth escapes, but is later caught and shot Lincoln dies next day, and VP Andrew Johnson is sworn in
The Assassin John Wilkes Booth
Reconstruction Reconstruction was the plan for reuniting the nation and rebuilding the South without slavery (planned by Lincoln) Once 10% of a state’s voters pledged loyalty and a ban on slavery, they could form gov’t/be readmitted to statehood 13 th Amendment of Dec. 18, 1865 made slavery illegal in US Freedmen’s Bureau provided relief to poor blacks and whites in South; distributed food, built schools, provided teachers
Black Codes Southern states began to pass laws to limit the freedom of African Americans – Black Codes Blacks without jobs could be arrested and sentenced to forced labor without pay (sounds like slavery!) President Johnson vetoes bills that gave rights to Blacks – was impeached by Congress; not convicted by one vote Ku Klux Klan was a secret organization to spread terror to newly freed slaves Jim Crow Laws were designed to segregate, or separate, blacks and whites in the South Poll Tax was designed to deny Blacks the vote by making them pay, some places made African Americans pass a literacy test to vote!