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Personality Chapter 15.

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Presentation on theme: "Personality Chapter 15."— Presentation transcript:

1 Personality Chapter 15

2 Each dwarf has a distinct personality.
An individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. Define personality. Each dwarf has a distinct personality.

3 Psychodynamic Perspective
In his clinical practice, Freud encountered patients suffering from nervous disorders. Their complaints could not be explained in terms of purely physical causes. Explain how Freud’s experiences in private practice led to his theory of psychoanalysis. Culver Pictures Sigmund Freud ( )

4 Psychodynamic Perspective
Freud’s clinical experience led him to develop the first comprehensive theory of personality, which included the unconscious mind, psychosexual stages, and defense mechanisms. Culver Pictures Sigmund Freud ( )

5 Exploring the Unconscious
A reservoir (unconscious mind) of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. Freud asked patients to say whatever came to their minds (free association) in order to tap the unconscious. Discuss Freud’s view of the mind as an iceberg, and explain how he used this image to represent conscious and unconscious regions of the mind.

6 Dream Analysis Another method to analyze the unconscious mind is through interpreting manifest and latent contents of dreams. The Nightmare, Henry Fuseli (1791)

7 Psychoanalysis The process of free association (chain of thoughts) leads to painful, embarrassing unconscious memories. Once these memories are retrieved and released (treatment: psychoanalysis) the patient feels better.

8 Model of Mind The mind is like an iceberg. It is mostly hidden, and below the surface lies the unconscious mind. The preconscious stores temporary memories.

9 Personality Structure
Personality develops as a result of our efforts to resolve conflicts between our biological impulses (id) and social restraints (superego).

10 Id, Ego and Superego The Id unconsciously strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives, operating on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification. The ego functions as the “executive” and mediates the demands of the id and superego. The superego provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations.

11 Personality Development
Freud believed that personality formed during the first few years of life divided into psychosexual stages. During these stages the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on pleasure sensitive body areas called erogenous zones. OBJECTIVE 5| Identify Freud’s psychosexual stages of development, and describe the effects of fixation on behavior.

12 Psychosexual Stages Freud divided the development of personality into five psychosexual stages.

13 Oedipus Complex A boy’s sexual desire for his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father. A girl’s desire for her father is called the Electra complex.

14 Identification Children cope with threatening feelings by repressing them and by identifying with the rival parent. Through this process of identification, their superego gains strength that incorporates their parents’ values. From the K. Vandervelde private collection

15 Defense Mechanisms The ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality. 1. Repression banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. 2. Regression- leads to an infantile stage OBJECTIVE 6| Describe the function of defense mechanisms, and identify six of them. Defense mechanisms reduce or redirect anxiety in various ways, but always by distorting reality. Repression, which underlies the other defense mechanisms, banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts from consciousness; regression involves retreat to an earlier, more infantile stage of development; and reaction formation makes unacceptable impulses look like their opposites. Projection attributes threatening impulses to others, rationalization offers self-justifying explanations for behavior, and displacement diverts impulses to a more acceptable object.

16 Defense Mechanisms 3. Reaction Formation causes the ego to unconsciously switch unacceptable impulses into their opposites. 4. Projection leads people to disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others. Example of reaction formation- ego unconsciously makes unaccpetable impulses look like their opposites “I hate him” becomes “I love him” People may express feelings of purity when they may be suffering anxiety from unconscious feelings about sex.

17 Defense Mechanisms 5. Rationalization offers self-justifying explanations 6. Displacement shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable object Ratinalization occurs when we unconsciously generate self-justifying exoplanations to hide ourselves from the real treasons for our actions Habitaul drinkers who drink with their friends “just to be sociable” Students who fail to study may rationalize in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions. or person, redirecting anger toward a safer outlet.

18 Do Now: Bryce often acts so daring and overly confident that few people realize he is actually riddled with unconscious insecurity and self-doubt. Bryce best illustrates the use of a defense mechanism known as: a. regression. b. projection. c. displacement. d. reaction formation. Jaydon doesn’t realize that his alcohol abuse and neglect of his family is leading to the destruction of both family and career. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Jaydon shows signs of a: a. strong ego. b. weak id. c. strong superego. d. weak ego Bonnie is afraid to express anger at her overbearing and irritating supervisor at work, so she is critical of her children instead. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Bonnie’s reaction to her children illustrates: a. identification. b. reaction formation. c. displacement. d. projection. Freud's theories of Personality: Id, Ego, Superego Defense Mechanisms- in order to resolve the conflict between id and superego, we develop six defense mechanisms repression- rationalization- regression- reaction- projection- displacement- question? All very controversial All published in "Interpretation of Dreams," What are some reasons why Freud might be controversial?

19 Freud’s Theory of Personality
Id, Ego, Superego Psychosexual Stages Defense Mechanisms in order to resolve the conflict between id and superego, we develop six defense mechanisms repression- rationalization- regression- reaction- projection- Displacement

20 Why were Freud’s Theories so heavily criticized?
Little empirical evidence to support Not predictive Gender Bias Too much emphasis on Sex Little empirical evidence to support Can’t refute Both positive and negative reactions support- negative reaction= resistance Not predictive (can explain why but not predict- but was never meant to predict) Contemporary studies- gender identity before age 5-6 and occurs without same sex parent present Too much sex- underestimates social influence Penis envy is objectionable and Women have weak superegos to many feminists (ex: Karen Horney)- Freud had assumption that men superior to women (weak superego)

21 Why was Freud revolutionary?
Impact on pop culture inferiority complex penis envy Freudian slip: unconscious is manifested through an error in speech "A Freudian slip is when you mean one thing, but you say your mother." Inspired future psychologists in the Neo-Freudian movement Bottom line- need to understand and appreciate Freud for what he is and what he gave- revolutionary and historic- greater impact on popculture, art, laypeople’s language (ego, repression, projection, complex, fixation, Freudian slips) than contemporary psychology

22 AIM: How has Freud impacted contemporary psychology?
The neo-Freudians accepted Freud’s basic ideas regarding personality structures, the importance of the unconscious, the shaping of personality in children, and the dynamics of anxiety and defense mechanisms.

23 Neo-Freudians agree with Freud:
id, ego, superego anxiety, defense mechanisms shaping of personality in childhood (Psychodynamic approach)- even dissenters influenced by Freud The neo-Freudians accepted Freud’s basic ideas regarding personality structures, the importance of the unconscious, the shaping of personality in children, and the dynamics of anxiety and defense mechanisms.

24 Neo-Freudians disagree with Freud:
Importance of consciousness Sex and Aggression However, in contrast to Freud, the neo-Freudians generally placed more emphasis on the conscious mind in interpreting experience and coping with the environment, and they argued that we have more positive motives than sex and aggression.

25 Carl Jung: Neofreudian
Unconscious consists of: 1) Personal unconscious a 2) Collective unconscious based on our species’ universal experiences Example: myths, maternal images, fear of dark Archive of the History of American Psychology/ University of Akron unconscious consist of personal unconscious (complexes=Freud’s unconscious and repressed thoughts) collective unconscious: collection of memories and behaviors (archetypes) passed down through the ancestors ex: mother as nurturer, circles, fear of the dark more likely shared evolution results in some universal dispositions which contained a common reservoir of images derived from our species’ past. This is why many cultures share certain myths and images such as the mother being a symbol of nurturance. Carl Jung ( )

26 Alfred Adler ego psychologist (downplayed unconscious)
childhood is formative period Inferiority-complex people are motivated by fear of failure (inferiority) and desire to achieve (superiority) Birth order Alfred Adler- Viennese psychiatrist Freud- emphasizes sex Jung- emphasizes role of ancesters Adler emphasized social interest as the primary determinant tof behavior Consciousness is the center of personality social not sexual interactions shape personality ego psychologist because he downplayed unconscious and focused on ego childhood is formative period Inferiority complex: people are motivated by fear of failure (inferiority) and desire to achieve (superiority) We all try to compensate for physical, intellectual and social inadequacies. Birth order- oldest child- responsible, protective Middle- ambitious Young- spoiked National Library of Medicine Alfred Adler ( )

27 Karen Horney -Womb envy -Personality based on need for security
- Relationship with parent influences personality Karen Horney- great critic but also Neo-Freudian- social not sexual interactions shape personality womb envy versus penis envy- penis envy is envy of privileges that males have in society personality is based on need for security interaction between child and parent as child deals with basic anxiety (being alone in unfamiliar and hostile world) forms basis for personality children who find security in relationship with parents will find security in relationships with others if not, likely to grow up insecure and distrusting Like Adler, Horney believed in the social aspects of childhood growth and development. She countered Freud’s assumption that women have weak superegos and suffer from “penis envy.” The Bettmann Archive/ Corbis Karen Horney ( )

28 Assessing Unconscious Processes
Projective tests- reveal the hidden unconscious mind OBJECTIVE 8| Describe two projective tests used to assess personality, and discuss some criticisms of them. Evaluating personality from an unconscious mind’s perspective would require a psychological instrument (projective tests) that would reveal the hidden unconscious mind. Good test must be: Reliability- consistent for scores Validity- assesses what its supposed to assess Standardized-

29 Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Developed by Henry Murray, the TAT is a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes. Developed by Henry Murray, Lew Merrim/ Photo Researcher, Inc.

30 Rorschach Inkblot Test
The most widely used projective test Herman Rorschach 10 inkblots It seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots. Lew Merrim/ Photo Researcher, Inc.

31 Projective Tests: Criticisms
Critics argue that projective tests lack both reliability (consistency of results) and validity (predicting what it is supposed to). When evaluating the same patient, even trained raters come up with different interpretations (reliability). 2. Projective tests may misdiagnose a normal individual as pathological (validity).

32 Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective
Modern Research Personality develops throughout life and is not fixed in childhood. Freud underemphasized peer influence on the individual Gender identity may develop before 5-6 years of age. OBJECTIVE 9| Summarize psychology’s current assessment of Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis. which may be as powerful as parental influence.

33 Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective
Modern Research There may be other reasons for dreams besides wish fulfillment. Verbal slips can be explained on the basis of cognitive processing of verbal choices. Suppressed sexuality leads to psychological disorders. Sexual inhibition has decreased, but psychological disorders have not.

34 Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective
Freud's psychoanalytic theory rests on the repression of painful experiences into the unconscious mind. The majority of children, death camp survivors, and battle-scarred veterans are unable to repress painful experiences into their unconscious mind.

35 Freud and the Unconscious Mind
Modern research shows the existence of non-conscious information processing. Schemas that automatically control perceptions and interpretations Parallel processing during vision and thinking Implicit memories Emotions that activate instantly without consciousness

36 Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective
The scientific merits of Freud’s theory have been criticized. Psychoanalysis is meagerly testable. Most of its concepts arise out of clinical practice, which are the after-the-fact explanation.

37 Which NeoFreudian emphasized..?
Collective unconscious Birth order Relationship with parent Ego Universal myths

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