2Each dwarf has a distinct personality. An individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.Define personality.Each dwarf has a distinct personality.
3Psychodynamic Perspective In his clinical practice, Freud encountered patients suffering from nervous disorders. Their complaints could not be explained in terms of purely physical causes.Explain how Freud’s experiences in private practice led to his theory of psychoanalysis.Culver PicturesSigmund Freud( )
4Psychodynamic Perspective Freud’s clinical experience led him to develop the first comprehensive theory of personality, which included the unconscious mind, psychosexual stages, and defense mechanisms.Culver PicturesSigmund Freud( )
5Exploring the Unconscious A reservoir (unconscious mind) of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. Freud asked patients to say whatever came to their minds (free association) in order to tap the unconscious.Discuss Freud’s view of the mind as an iceberg, and explain how he used this image to represent conscious and unconscious regions of the mind.
6Dream AnalysisAnother method to analyze the unconscious mind is through interpreting manifest and latent contents of dreams.The Nightmare, Henry Fuseli (1791)
7PsychoanalysisThe process of free association (chain of thoughts) leads to painful, embarrassing unconscious memories. Once these memories are retrieved and released (treatment: psychoanalysis) the patient feels better.
8Model of MindThe mind is like an iceberg. It is mostly hidden, and below the surface lies the unconscious mind. The preconscious stores temporary memories.
9Personality Structure Personality develops as a result of our efforts to resolve conflicts between our biological impulses (id) and social restraints (superego).
10Id, Ego and SuperegoThe Id unconsciously strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives, operating on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.The ego functions as the “executive” and mediates the demands of the id and superego.The superego provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations.
11Personality Development Freud believed that personality formed during the first few years of life divided into psychosexual stages. During these stages the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on pleasure sensitive body areas called erogenous zones.OBJECTIVE 5| Identify Freud’s psychosexual stages of development, and describe the effects of fixation on behavior.
12Psychosexual StagesFreud divided the development of personality into five psychosexual stages.
13Oedipus ComplexA boy’s sexual desire for his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father. A girl’s desire for her father is called the Electra complex.
14IdentificationChildren cope with threatening feelings by repressing them and by identifying with the rival parent. Through this process of identification, their superego gains strength that incorporates their parents’ values.From the K. Vandervelde private collection
15Defense MechanismsThe ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.1. Repression banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.2. Regression- leads to an infantile stageOBJECTIVE 6| Describe the function of defense mechanisms, and identify six of them.Defense mechanisms reduce or redirect anxiety in various ways, but always by distorting reality. Repression, which underlies the other defense mechanisms, banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts from consciousness; regression involves retreat to an earlier, more infantile stage of development; and reaction formation makes unacceptable impulses look like their opposites. Projection attributes threatening impulses to others, rationalization offers self-justifying explanations for behavior, and displacement diverts impulses to a more acceptable object.
16Defense Mechanisms3. Reaction Formation causes the ego to unconsciously switch unacceptable impulses into their opposites.4. Projection leads people to disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.Example of reaction formation- ego unconsciously makes unaccpetable impulses look like their opposites“I hate him” becomes “I love him” People may express feelings of purity when they may be suffering anxiety from unconscious feelings about sex.
17Defense Mechanisms5. Rationalization offers self-justifying explanations6. Displacement shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable objectRatinalization occurs when we unconsciously generate self-justifying exoplanations to hide ourselves from the real treasons for our actionsHabitaul drinkers who drink with their friends “just to be sociable”Students who fail to study may rationalizein place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions.or person, redirecting anger toward a safer outlet.
18Do Now:Bryce often acts so daring and overly confident that few people realize he is actually riddled with unconscious insecurity and self-doubt. Bryce best illustrates the use of a defense mechanism known as: a. regression. b. projection. c. displacement. d. reaction formation.Jaydon doesn’t realize that his alcohol abuse and neglect of his family is leading to the destruction of both family and career. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Jaydon shows signs of a: a. strong ego. b. weak id. c. strong superego. d. weak egoBonnie is afraid to express anger at her overbearing and irritating supervisor at work, so she is critical of her children instead. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Bonnie’s reaction to her children illustrates: a. identification. b. reaction formation. c. displacement. d. projection.Freud's theories of Personality:Id, Ego, SuperegoDefense Mechanisms- in order to resolve the conflict between id and superego, we develop six defense mechanismsrepression-rationalization-regression-reaction-projection-displacement-question?All very controversialAll published in "Interpretation of Dreams,"What are some reasons why Freud might be controversial?
19Freud’s Theory of Personality Id, Ego, SuperegoPsychosexual StagesDefense Mechanismsin order to resolve the conflict between id and superego, we develop six defense mechanismsrepression-rationalization-regression-reaction-projection-Displacement
20Why were Freud’s Theories so heavily criticized? Little empirical evidence to supportNot predictiveGender BiasToo much emphasis on SexLittle empirical evidence to supportCan’t refute Both positive and negative reactions support- negative reaction= resistanceNot predictive (can explain why but not predict- but was never meant to predict)Contemporary studies- gender identity before age 5-6 and occurs without same sex parent presentToo much sex- underestimates social influencePenis envy is objectionable and Women have weak superegos to many feminists (ex: Karen Horney)- Freud had assumption that men superior to women (weak superego)
21Why was Freud revolutionary? Impact on pop cultureinferiority complexpenis envyFreudian slip: unconscious is manifested through an error in speech"A Freudian slip is when you mean one thing, but you say your mother."Inspired future psychologists in the Neo-Freudian movementBottom line- need to understand and appreciate Freud for what he is and what he gave- revolutionary and historic- greater impact on popculture, art, laypeople’s language (ego, repression, projection, complex, fixation, Freudian slips) than contemporary psychology
22AIM: How has Freud impacted contemporary psychology? The neo-Freudians accepted Freud’s basic ideas regarding personality structures, the importance of the unconscious, the shaping of personality in children, and the dynamics of anxiety and defense mechanisms.
23Neo-Freudians agree with Freud: id, ego, superegoanxiety, defense mechanismsshaping of personality in childhood(Psychodynamic approach)- even dissenters influenced by FreudThe neo-Freudians accepted Freud’s basic ideas regarding personality structures, the importance of the unconscious, the shaping of personality in children, and the dynamics of anxiety and defense mechanisms.
24Neo-Freudians disagree with Freud: Importance of consciousnessSex and AggressionHowever, in contrast to Freud, the neo-Freudians generally placed more emphasis on the conscious mind in interpreting experience and coping with the environment, and they argued that we have more positive motives than sex and aggression.
25Carl Jung: Neofreudian Unconscious consists of:1) Personal unconscious a2) Collective unconscious based on our species’ universal experiencesExample: myths, maternal images, fear of darkArchive of the History of American Psychology/ University of Akronunconscious consist ofpersonal unconscious (complexes=Freud’s unconscious and repressed thoughts)collective unconscious: collection of memories and behaviors (archetypes) passed down through the ancestors ex: mother as nurturer, circles, fear of the darkmore likely shared evolution results in some universal dispositionswhich contained a common reservoir of images derived from our species’ past. This is why many cultures share certain myths and images such as the mother being a symbol of nurturance.Carl Jung ( )
26Alfred Adler ego psychologist (downplayed unconscious) childhood is formative periodInferiority-complex people are motivated by fear of failure (inferiority) and desire to achieve (superiority)Birth orderAlfred Adler- Viennese psychiatristFreud- emphasizes sexJung- emphasizes role of ancestersAdler emphasized social interest as the primary determinant tof behaviorConsciousness is the center of personalitysocial not sexual interactions shape personalityego psychologist because he downplayed unconscious and focused on egochildhood is formative periodInferiority complex: people are motivated by fear of failure (inferiority) and desire to achieve (superiority)We all try to compensate for physical, intellectual and social inadequacies.Birth order- oldest child- responsible, protectiveMiddle- ambitiousYoung- spoikedNational Library of MedicineAlfred Adler ( )
27Karen Horney -Womb envy -Personality based on need for security - Relationship with parent influences personalityKaren Horney- great critic but also Neo-Freudian-social not sexual interactions shape personalitywomb envy versus penis envy- penis envy is envy of privileges that males have in societypersonality is based on need for securityinteraction between child and parent as child deals with basic anxiety (being alone in unfamiliar and hostile world) forms basis for personalitychildren who find security in relationship with parents will find security in relationships with othersif not, likely to grow up insecure and distrustingLike Adler, Horney believed in the social aspects of childhood growth and development. She countered Freud’s assumption that women have weak superegos and suffer from “penis envy.”The Bettmann Archive/ CorbisKaren Horney ( )
28Assessing Unconscious Processes Projective tests- reveal the hidden unconscious mindOBJECTIVE 8| Describe two projective tests used to assess personality, and discuss some criticisms of them.Evaluating personality from an unconscious mind’s perspective would require a psychological instrument (projective tests) that would reveal the hidden unconscious mind.Good test must be:Reliability- consistent for scoresValidity- assesses what its supposed to assessStandardized-
29Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Developed by Henry Murray, the TAT is a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.Developed by Henry Murray,Lew Merrim/ Photo Researcher, Inc.
30Rorschach Inkblot Test The most widely used projective testHerman Rorschach10 inkblotsIt seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.Lew Merrim/ Photo Researcher, Inc.
31Projective Tests: Criticisms Critics argue that projective tests lack both reliability (consistency of results) and validity (predicting what it is supposed to).When evaluating the same patient, even trained raters come up with different interpretations (reliability).2. Projective tests may misdiagnose a normal individual as pathological (validity).
32Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective Modern ResearchPersonality develops throughout life and is not fixed in childhood.Freud underemphasized peer influence on the individualGender identity may develop before 5-6 years of age.OBJECTIVE 9| Summarize psychology’s current assessment of Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis.which may be as powerful as parental influence.
33Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective Modern ResearchThere may be other reasons for dreams besides wish fulfillment.Verbal slips can be explained on the basis of cognitive processing of verbal choices.Suppressed sexuality leads to psychological disorders. Sexual inhibition has decreased, but psychological disorders have not.
34Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective Freud's psychoanalytic theory rests on the repression of painful experiences into the unconscious mind.The majority of children, death camp survivors, and battle-scarred veterans are unable to repress painful experiences into their unconscious mind.
35Freud and the Unconscious Mind Modern research shows the existence of non-conscious information processing.Schemas that automatically control perceptions and interpretationsParallel processing during vision and thinkingImplicit memoriesEmotions that activate instantly without consciousness
36Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective The scientific merits of Freud’s theory have been criticized. Psychoanalysis is meagerly testable. Most of its concepts arise out of clinical practice, which are the after-the-fact explanation.
37Which NeoFreudian emphasized..? Collective unconsciousBirth orderRelationship with parentEgoUniversal myths