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Chapter 5 Ionic Bonding. Ions Valence electrons: the electrons in the highest occupied energy level Valence electrons: the electrons in the highest occupied.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Ionic Bonding. Ions Valence electrons: the electrons in the highest occupied energy level Valence electrons: the electrons in the highest occupied."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 Ionic Bonding

2 Ions Valence electrons: the electrons in the highest occupied energy level Valence electrons: the electrons in the highest occupied energy level Valence electrons can be determined by their electron configurations Valence electrons can be determined by their electron configurations Valence electrons largely determine the chemical properties of an element Valence electrons largely determine the chemical properties of an element

3 Ions  The number of valence electrons is also related to the group number in the Periodic Table. All Alkali metals are in group 1 and have 1 valence electron. All Alkali metals are in group 1 and have 1 valence electron. Valence electrons are usually the only electrons used in the formation of chemical bonds

4 Ions  Electron dot structures:Shows valence electrons as dots. The inner electrons are represented by the elements symbol.  Electron dot structures: Shows valence electrons as dots. The inner electrons are represented by the elements symbol.

5 Ions  Octet rule: Atoms in compounds tend to have the electron configuration of a noble gas Typically 8 electrons in Highest nrg level Typically 8 electrons in Highest nrg level Except He which has 2 electrons Except He which has 2 electrons Cations: are atoms that lose all valence electrons to gain the electron configuration of the nearest noble gas. (typically metals)

6 Ions  Ionization: process of becoming an ion Alkali metals always form +1 ions Alkali metals always form +1 ions Alkaline Earth metals always form +2 ion Alkaline Earth metals always form +2 ion

7 Ions  Anions: are atoms that gain electrons to achieve the electron configuration of the next noble gas. (Typically non-metals) Halogens always form -1 ions Halogens always form -1 ions

8 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds  Ionic compounds: are formed when ions are bonded together and become electrically neutral. (Typically metal + nonmetal) a.k.a. salt  Ionic bonds: force of attraction that binds oppositely charged ions together. Cations (+) and Anions (-), opposite charges attract.

9 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds  Chemical Formula – shows the kinds and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit of a substance  Formula Unit – lowest whole-number ratio of the ions in an ionic compound

10 Properties of Ionic Compounds  How do they occur? When these two atoms get near each other: When these two atoms get near each other: The atom with low electronegativity gives electrons to the atom with high electronegativity until both have the same number of valence electrons as the nearest noble gas.The atom with low electronegativity gives electrons to the atom with high electronegativity until both have the same number of valence electrons as the nearest noble gas.

11 Cont’d  Once a cation and anion are formed, they stick to each other magnetically via electrostatic attraction. Once they’ve stuck together, the resulting material is called an ionic compound.

12 How to tell if a compound is ionic or not by looking at its formula: 1)When metals bond to nonmetals, they form ionic compounds. 2) The farther two elements are from one another on the periodic table, the more likely the compound is to be ionic.

13 3) If the electronegativity difference between the two elements is greater than about 1.7, the compound is said to be ionic. Chart of electronegativities is in your book on p Chart of electronegativities is in your book on p LiF is ionic because the electronegativity of Li is 1.0 and F is 4.0 (3.0 difference). LiF is ionic because the electronegativity of Li is 1.0 and F is 4.0 (3.0 difference).

14 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds  Solid at room temperature / brittle cations and anions are locked tightly in place because of opposite charges cations and anions are locked tightly in place because of opposite charges  Crystals: orderly repeating 3-D pattern

15  High melting point (> C)  Conduct electricity when molten or in an aqueous solution (ions need to be moving to conduct electricity and in crystalline form they are too tightly packed)

16 Bonding in Metals Bonding in Metals  Metallic Bonds: attraction of free-flowing valence electrons to the (+) charged metallic ions.  The valence electrons of metal atoms can be modeled as a sea of electrons  Metals are arranged in very compact and orderly patterns

17 Bonding in Metals  Alloys – mixtures composed of two or more elements…at least one of which is a metal Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc  Alloys are important because their properties are often superior to those of their component elements


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