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 Explain how the octet rule is related to bond formation  Identify the location of metals and nonmetals on the periodic table.  Describe how ionic.

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Presentation on theme: " Explain how the octet rule is related to bond formation  Identify the location of metals and nonmetals on the periodic table.  Describe how ionic."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Explain how the octet rule is related to bond formation  Identify the location of metals and nonmetals on the periodic table.  Describe how ionic bonds are formed  Discuss some important properties of ionic compounds

3  According to the octet rule, in forming compounds, atoms tend to combine with other atoms so that they each have 8 valence electrons

4  Anions (negative ions) and cations (positive ions) have opposite charges.  They attract one another by electrostatic forces  The forces of attraction that bind these oppositely charged ions are called ionic bonds

5  Compounds that consist of groups of ions joined by electrostatic forces are called ionic compound  In any sample of an ionic compound, the total positive charges of the cations must equal the total negative charges of the anions

6  Consider the reaction between sodium and chlorine ◦ Sodium has a single valence electron that it can easily lose ◦ Chlorine has seven valence electrons and can easily gain one ◦ When sodium and chlorine react to form a compound, the sodium atom gives up its valence electron and a chlorine ion accepts this electron

7  The chemical formula of sodium chloride (NaCl) represents a formula unit, or the lowest whole-number ratio of cations to anions in an ionic compound

8  An aluminum atom has 3 valence electrons while bromine has 7  Therefore, aluminum wants to lose its 3 electrons while bromine wants to gain one more electron  This means that when aluminum and bromine react, three bromine atoms combine with each aluminum atom (AlBr 3 )

9  Ionic compounds are always composed of one nonmetal and one metal ◦ Electrons transfer from a metal to a nonmetal  Where are metals located on the periodic table? What about nonmetals? ◦ Metals = left of the stairs except hydrogen ◦ Nonmetals = right of stairs and plus hydrogen  Elements never gain or lose more than 3 electrons as they form ionic compounds

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11  At room temperature, most ionic compounds are solids because the forces between ions are very strong ◦ Ionic solids have a high melting point  When melted, ionic compounds can conduct electric current  Ionic solids are also hard and dissolve easily in water

12  What is electronegativity??? ◦ The ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself

13  Calcium  Bromine  Aluminum  Magnesium  Nitrogen  Tellurium


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