3 Learning Targets7.1.1 – I can determine the number of valence electrons in an atom of a representative element – I can explain how the octet rule applies to atoms of metallic and nonmetallic elements – I can describe how cations form – I can explain how anions form.
4 Valence ElectronsValence electrons – electrons in the highest occupied energy level of an elements atoms.Valence electrons determine an elements properties.
5 To find the number of valence electrons simply look at the group number. Helium is the only exception to this, only has 2 electrons.Electron dot structure – diagrams that show the valence electrons as dots.
7 The Octet RuleOctet rule – in forming compounds, atoms tend to achieve the electron configuration of noble gases.Or the configuration of ns2np6
8 Atoms of metallic elements tend to lose their valence electrons, leaving a complete octet in the next-lowest energy level.Atoms of nonmetallic elements tend to gain electrons or share electrons with another nonmetallic element to achieve a complete octet.
9 Formation Of CationsAn atom’s loss of valence electrons produces a cation, or a positively charged ion.Usually metal atoms – very few nonmetals lose electrons.
10 Transition metals will achieve the most stable configuration possible so they may be exceptions to the octet rule.Also called a pseudo-noble gas electron configuration.
13 Formation Of AnionsThe gain of negatively charged electrons by a neutral atom produces an anion.Nonmetals form anions and change their name endings to – ide.Halide ion – ions produced when atoms of chlorine and the other halogens gain electrons.
18 Learning Targets7.2.1 – I can explain the electrical charge of an ionic compound – I can describe three properties of ionic compounds.
19 Formation of Ionic Compounds Ionic compound – compounds composed of cations and anions.Although they are composed of ions, ionic compounds are electrically neutral.Sodium reacting with chlorine 1Sodium reacting with chlorine 2Aluminum reacting with bromineSodium reacting with bromineAluminum reacting with iodine
20 Ionic BondsIonic bonds – electrostatic forces that hold ions together in ionic compounds.Think about sodium and chlorideSodium has 1 valence electron.Chlorine has 7 valence electron.When they combine sodium gives chlorine its 1 valence electron so they both satisfy the octet rule.
30 Learning Targets7.3.1 – I can model the valence electrons of metal atoms – I can describe the arrangement of atoms in a metal – I can explain the importance of alloys.
31 Metallic Bonds and Metallic Properties The valence electrons of metal atoms can be modeled as a “sea” of electrons.Metallic bonds – attraction of the free-floating valence electrons for the positively charged metal atoms.
33 Metallic Bonds and Metallic Properties Good conductors of electrical current because of the free-floating electrons.Malleable (pounded into sheets)Ductile (pulled into wires)
34 Crystalline Structure of Metals Metal atoms are arranged in very compact and orderly patterns.Body-centered cubic(8 neighbors)Face-centered cubic(12 neighbors)Hexagonal close-packed (12 neighbors)
35 AlloysAlloy – mixtures composed of two or more elements at least one of which is a metal.Alloys are important because their properties are often superior to those of the component elements.
36 Substitutional alloy – components are about the same size and one replaces (substitutes) another. Interstitial alloy – components are different sizes and smaller fits into the spaces (intercies) of the larger.