2Tensions between Mexico and the US Mexican government encouraged US settlement in TexasPrevent border violationsProtection from NativesMexico gave massive land grants to empresariosBring in settlers and sell landPledged to obey Mexican laws and observe the Roman Catholic faith
3Tensions between Mexico and the US Until 1830s, most Anglos willing to live by these rulesAs population surged, Mexico rethought immigration policiesTensions over social issues1829: Mexico had freed slaves, insisted Texans do the same1830: Mexico closed borders, created heavy import tax on goods from U.S.
4Texas Fights for Independence! Mexico didn’t have enough troops to enforce border closure1833: Santa Anna suspended Mexican constitutionRebellion erupts … the Texas Revolution is on!Anglo population in Texas had doubled between 1820 and 1834!
5Fight at the Alamo!Santa Anna determined to force Texas to obey Mexican lawAnglo forces moved to Alamo; if they could hold the Alamo, they could stop Santa AnnaFeb 23-March 6, 1836: Santa Anna attacked AlamoSiege ended when Mexican troops scaled the walls
8Independence!March 2, 1836: Texas declared independence, arguing Mexico had violated fundamental rightsMarch 16, 1836: Texans ratified constitution based on the US. Constitution
9“Remember the Alamo!”Six weeks after Alamo, Houston and 900 men surprised Mexican soldiers at Battle of San JacintoTexans killed 630 Mexicans in 15 minutes, captured Santa AnnaSanta Anna freed only after he signed Treaty of Velasco granting independence to TexasMexico later refused to acknowledge the treaty but Great Britain, France, and the US had already acknowledged Texas’ new status
10Analyzing Independence Read the packet of documents (A-D) and fill out the graphic organizer. Make sure to answer the question at the bottom since this will lead into a class discussion!
11Analyzing Independence Why did Texans declare independence?Were these honorable men, fighting for freedom, or greedy slaveholders?What evidence from the documents supports your opinion?Which of these pieces of evidence do you find more/less trustworthy? Why?Why do historians still debate this question?Once Texas declares and wins its independence, why would Mexico object to American annexation of Texas?
12The Republic of Texas1836: San Houston elected president of the Republic of TexasMost Texans hoped U.S. would annexSoutherners pro annexation since slavery used in TexasNortherners against for same reason
13Texas Annexation1844: Southern expansionist James A. Polk elected PresidentMarch 1845: Congress approved Texas annexationDec 1845: Texas officially 28th stateMexico cut off all diplomatic ties with the U.S.
14Causes of Mexican-American War Manifest DestinyAnnexation of Texas by U.S.Dispute over the boundary of Texas
15Boundary DisputeTexas and U.S. claim that the Rio Grande marks the southern border of TexasMexican government argues that the border is the Nueces River
17War on the Horizon: “Mr. Polk’s War” “In the White House now was James Polk, a Democrat, an expansionist, who, on the night of his inauguration, confided to his Secretary of the Navy that one of his main objectives was the acquisition of California. His order to General Taylor to move troops to the Rio Grande was a challenge to the Mexicans. It was not at all clear that the Rio Grande was the southern boundary of Texas, although Texas had forced the defeated Mexican general Santa Anna to say so when he was a prisoner. The traditional border between Texas and Mexico had been the Nueces River, about 150 miles to the north, and both Mexico and the United States had recognized that as the border. However, Polk, encouraging the Texans to accept annexation, had assured them he would uphold their claims to the Rio Grande. Ordering troops to the Rio Grande, into territory inhabited by Mexicans, was clearly a provocation. Taylor had once denounced the idea of the annexation of Texas. But now that he had his marching orders, his attitude seemed to change.”Don’t mess with TexasJames K. Polk
18Prelude to WarRead the selection from The PBS documentary “Manifest Destiny and the Mexican American War.” Respond to these two questions:What political, economic, and social pressures promoted American expansion?Why was it nearly impossible for Mexico to protect its northern territories like Texas and California?
19Politics and WarPolk believed war with Mexico would win the U.S. more territoryIn Mexico, Santa Anna replaced by General Jose HerreraNov 1845: Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico to purchase California and New Mexico and extend the official Texas border to Rio GrandeHerrera refused to meet with SlidellJohn Slidell
20Politics and WarPolk figured any form of Mexican aggression would unify countryOrdered General Zachary Taylor to blockade the Rio GrandeMexican government saw this as violation of Mexican border
21Boundary Violations!March 1846: Taylor made camp at the Rio Grande in disputed territoryApril 1846: Mexican commander insisted U.S. troops leave, Taylor refusedMexican forces crossed the Rio Grande, attacked U.S. soldiers11 Americans killed
22Declaring War…May 11, 1846: Polk asked Congress for declaration of war“Mexico has shed American blood upon the American soil”Two days later Congress declared war on Mexico
23Support for the War Southerners supported war – new slave territories Greater national prideSpread democratic values
24Opposition to the War Whig Party thought the conflict was unjustified Abolitionists feared new slave territories1848: Illinois Congressman Abraham Lincoln wrote the “Spot Resolutions” asking Polk to show the spot where American blood had been shed on American soil
25Gaining New Mexico1846: Polk orders troops to march from Kansas to Santa Fe, NM (all 800 miles!)Troops met by New Mexicans who wanted to join the USNew Mexico was won without a shot being fired!
26Gaining California1845: American settlers, angry that Mexico had turned down U.S. offer to buy CA, seized town of SonomaRaised flag with image of grizzly bearDeclared independence from Mexico, named themselves the “Bear Flag Republic”U.S. troops arrived and Mexican troops gave way
27The War Moves SouthUnder the command of Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee, numerous American victoriesMexican troops tried, but were generally unsuccessfulPolk and Santa Anna: if Polk helped him return to power, Santa Anna would sign a peace accord with U.S.Not surprisingly this did not happen the way Polk planned
28The War Ends… Mexico United States Lost 50,000 men Lost nearly half its landGeneral hatred of the United States growsUnited StatesLost 13,000 men – 2,000 to battle, 11,000 to diseaseEnlarged territory by 1/3
29The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Forced on Mexican governmentU.S. gained:California, Nevada, and UtahMost of Arizona and New MexicoParts of Colorado and WyomingTexas southern boundary would be Rio GrandeU.S. agreed to pay $15 million to Mexico and pay Mexican debts to U.S. citizens