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Texas Independence and the Mexican Revolution. Tensions between Mexico and the US  Mexican government encouraged US settlement in Texas  Prevent border.

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Presentation on theme: "Texas Independence and the Mexican Revolution. Tensions between Mexico and the US  Mexican government encouraged US settlement in Texas  Prevent border."— Presentation transcript:

1 Texas Independence and the Mexican Revolution

2 Tensions between Mexico and the US  Mexican government encouraged US settlement in Texas  Prevent border violations  Protection from Natives  Mexico gave massive land grants to empresarios  Bring in settlers and sell land  Pledged to obey Mexican laws and observe the Roman Catholic faith  Mexican government encouraged US settlement in Texas  Prevent border violations  Protection from Natives  Mexico gave massive land grants to empresarios  Bring in settlers and sell land  Pledged to obey Mexican laws and observe the Roman Catholic faith

3 Tensions between Mexico and the US  Until 1830s, most Anglos willing to live by these rules  As population surged, Mexico rethought immigration policies  Tensions over social issues  1829: Mexico had freed slaves, insisted Texans do the same  1830: Mexico closed borders, created heavy import tax on goods from U.S.  Until 1830s, most Anglos willing to live by these rules  As population surged, Mexico rethought immigration policies  Tensions over social issues  1829: Mexico had freed slaves, insisted Texans do the same  1830: Mexico closed borders, created heavy import tax on goods from U.S.

4 Texas Fights for Independence!  Mexico didn’t have enough troops to enforce border closure  1833: Santa Anna suspended Mexican constitution  Rebellion erupts … the Texas Revolution is on!  Mexico didn’t have enough troops to enforce border closure  1833: Santa Anna suspended Mexican constitution  Rebellion erupts … the Texas Revolution is on!

5 Fight at the Alamo!  Santa Anna determined to force Texas to obey Mexican law  Anglo forces moved to Alamo; if they could hold the Alamo, they could stop Santa Anna  Feb 23-March 6, 1836: Santa Anna attacked Alamo  Siege ended when Mexican troops scaled the walls  Santa Anna determined to force Texas to obey Mexican law  Anglo forces moved to Alamo; if they could hold the Alamo, they could stop Santa Anna  Feb 23-March 6, 1836: Santa Anna attacked Alamo  Siege ended when Mexican troops scaled the walls

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8 Independence!  March 2, 1836: Texas declared independence, arguing Mexico had violated fundamental rights  March 16, 1836: Texans ratified constitution based on the US. Constitution  March 2, 1836: Texas declared independence, arguing Mexico had violated fundamental rights  March 16, 1836: Texans ratified constitution based on the US. Constitution

9 “Remember the Alamo!”  Six weeks after Alamo, Houston and 900 men surprised Mexican soldiers at Battle of San Jacinto  Texans killed 630 Mexicans in 15 minutes, captured Santa Anna  Santa Anna freed only after he signed Treaty of Velasco granting independence to Texas  Six weeks after Alamo, Houston and 900 men surprised Mexican soldiers at Battle of San Jacinto  Texans killed 630 Mexicans in 15 minutes, captured Santa Anna  Santa Anna freed only after he signed Treaty of Velasco granting independence to Texas

10 Analyzing Independence Read the packet of documents (A-D) and fill out the graphic organizer. Make sure to answer the question at the bottom since this will lead into a class discussion!

11 Analyzing Independence 1.Why did Texans declare independence? 2.Were these honorable men, fighting for freedom, or greedy slaveholders?  What evidence from the documents supports your opinion?  Which of these pieces of evidence do you find more/less trustworthy? Why?  Why do historians still debate this question? 3.Once Texas declares and wins its independence, why would Mexico object to American annexation of Texas? 1.Why did Texans declare independence? 2.Were these honorable men, fighting for freedom, or greedy slaveholders?  What evidence from the documents supports your opinion?  Which of these pieces of evidence do you find more/less trustworthy? Why?  Why do historians still debate this question? 3.Once Texas declares and wins its independence, why would Mexico object to American annexation of Texas?

12 The Republic of Texas  1836: San Houston elected president of the Republic of Texas  Most Texans hoped U.S. would annex  Southerners pro annexation since slavery used in Texas  Northerners against for same reason  1836: San Houston elected president of the Republic of Texas  Most Texans hoped U.S. would annex  Southerners pro annexation since slavery used in Texas  Northerners against for same reason

13 Texas Annexation  1844: Southern expansionist James A. Polk elected President  March 1845: Congress approved Texas annexation  Dec 1845: Texas officially 28 th state  Mexico cut off all diplomatic ties with the U.S.  1844: Southern expansionist James A. Polk elected President  March 1845: Congress approved Texas annexation  Dec 1845: Texas officially 28 th state  Mexico cut off all diplomatic ties with the U.S.

14 Causes of Mexican- American War 1.Manifest Destiny 2.Annexation of Texas by U.S. 3.Dispute over the boundary of Texas 1.Manifest Destiny 2.Annexation of Texas by U.S. 3.Dispute over the boundary of Texas

15 Boundary Dispute  Texas and U.S. claim that the Rio Grande marks the southern border of Texas  Mexican government argues that the border is the Nueces River  Texas and U.S. claim that the Rio Grande marks the southern border of Texas  Mexican government argues that the border is the Nueces River

16 Nueces River boundary Rio Grande boundary

17 War on the Horizon: “Mr. Polk’s War” “In the White House now was James Polk, a Democrat, an expansionist, who, on the night of his inauguration, confided to his Secretary of the Navy that one of his main objectives was the acquisition of California. His order to General Taylor to move troops to the Rio Grande was a challenge to the Mexicans. It was not at all clear that the Rio Grande was the southern boundary of Texas, although Texas had forced the defeated Mexican general Santa Anna to say so when he was a prisoner. The traditional border between Texas and Mexico had been the Nueces River, about 150 miles to the north, and both Mexico and the United States had recognized that as the border. However, Polk, encouraging the Texans to accept annexation, had assured them he would uphold their claims to the Rio Grande. Ordering troops to the Rio Grande, into territory inhabited by Mexicans, was clearly a provocation. Taylor had once denounced the idea of the annexation of Texas. But now that he had his marching orders, his attitude seemed to change.” Don’t mess with Texas James K. Polk

18 Prelude to War Read the selection from The PBS documentary “Manifest Destiny and the Mexican American War.” Respond to these two questions: 1.What political, economic, and social pressures promoted American expansion? 2.Why was it nearly impossible for Mexico to protect its northern territories like Texas and California? Read the selection from The PBS documentary “Manifest Destiny and the Mexican American War.” Respond to these two questions: 1.What political, economic, and social pressures promoted American expansion? 2.Why was it nearly impossible for Mexico to protect its northern territories like Texas and California?

19 Politics and War  Polk believed war with Mexico would win the U.S. more territory  In Mexico, Santa Anna replaced by General Jose Herrera  Nov 1845: Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico to purchase California and New Mexico and extend the official Texas border to Rio Grande  Herrera refused to meet with Slidell  Polk believed war with Mexico would win the U.S. more territory  In Mexico, Santa Anna replaced by General Jose Herrera  Nov 1845: Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico to purchase California and New Mexico and extend the official Texas border to Rio Grande  Herrera refused to meet with Slidell John Slidell

20 Politics and War  Polk figured any form of Mexican aggression would unify country  Ordered General Zachary Taylor to blockade the Rio Grande  Mexican government saw this as violation of Mexican border  Polk figured any form of Mexican aggression would unify country  Ordered General Zachary Taylor to blockade the Rio Grande  Mexican government saw this as violation of Mexican border

21 Boundary Violations!  March 1846: Taylor made camp at the Rio Grande in disputed territory  April 1846: Mexican commander insisted U.S. troops leave, Taylor refused  Mexican forces crossed the Rio Grande, attacked U.S. soldiers  11 Americans killed  March 1846: Taylor made camp at the Rio Grande in disputed territory  April 1846: Mexican commander insisted U.S. troops leave, Taylor refused  Mexican forces crossed the Rio Grande, attacked U.S. soldiers  11 Americans killed

22 Declaring War…  May 11, 1846: Polk asked Congress for declaration of war  “Mexico has shed American blood upon the American soil”  Two days later Congress declared war on Mexico  May 11, 1846: Polk asked Congress for declaration of war  “Mexico has shed American blood upon the American soil”  Two days later Congress declared war on Mexico

23 Support for the War 1.Southerners supported war – new slave territories 2.Greater national pride 3.Spread democratic values 1.Southerners supported war – new slave territories 2.Greater national pride 3.Spread democratic values

24 Opposition to the War 1.Whig Party thought the conflict was unjustified 2.Abolitionists feared new slave territories 1848: Illinois Congressman Abraham Lincoln wrote the “Spot Resolutions” asking Polk to show the spot where American blood had been shed on American soil 1.Whig Party thought the conflict was unjustified 2.Abolitionists feared new slave territories 1848: Illinois Congressman Abraham Lincoln wrote the “Spot Resolutions” asking Polk to show the spot where American blood had been shed on American soil

25 Gaining New Mexico  1846: Polk orders troops to march from Kansas to Santa Fe, NM (all 800 miles!)  Troops met by New Mexicans who wanted to join the US  New Mexico was won without a shot being fired!  1846: Polk orders troops to march from Kansas to Santa Fe, NM (all 800 miles!)  Troops met by New Mexicans who wanted to join the US  New Mexico was won without a shot being fired!

26 Gaining California  1845: American settlers, angry that Mexico had turned down U.S. offer to buy CA, seized town of Sonoma  Raised flag with image of grizzly bear  Declared independence from Mexico, named themselves the “Bear Flag Republic”  U.S. troops arrived and Mexican troops gave way  1845: American settlers, angry that Mexico had turned down U.S. offer to buy CA, seized town of Sonoma  Raised flag with image of grizzly bear  Declared independence from Mexico, named themselves the “Bear Flag Republic”  U.S. troops arrived and Mexican troops gave way

27 The War Moves South  Under the command of Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee, numerous American victories  Mexican troops tried, but were generally unsuccessful  Polk and Santa Anna: if Polk helped him return to power, Santa Anna would sign a peace accord with U.S.  Under the command of Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee, numerous American victories  Mexican troops tried, but were generally unsuccessful  Polk and Santa Anna: if Polk helped him return to power, Santa Anna would sign a peace accord with U.S.

28 The War Ends…  Mexico  Lost 50,000 men  Lost nearly half its land  General hatred of the United States grows  United States  Lost 13,000 men – 2,000 to battle, 11,000 to disease  Enlarged territory by 1/3  Mexico  Lost 50,000 men  Lost nearly half its land  General hatred of the United States grows  United States  Lost 13,000 men – 2,000 to battle, 11,000 to disease  Enlarged territory by 1/3

29 The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo  Forced on Mexican government  U.S. gained: 1.California, Nevada, and Utah 2.Most of Arizona and New Mexico 3.Parts of Colorado and Wyoming  Texas southern boundary would be Rio Grande  U.S. agreed to pay $15 million to Mexico and pay Mexican debts to U.S. citizens  Forced on Mexican government  U.S. gained: 1.California, Nevada, and Utah 2.Most of Arizona and New Mexico 3.Parts of Colorado and Wyoming  Texas southern boundary would be Rio Grande  U.S. agreed to pay $15 million to Mexico and pay Mexican debts to U.S. citizens

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31 Gadsden Purchase  1853: President Franklin Pierce authorized $10 million payment to Mexico for one last piece of territory  Last piece of territory in what makes up the modern day continental U.S.  1853: President Franklin Pierce authorized $10 million payment to Mexico for one last piece of territory  Last piece of territory in what makes up the modern day continental U.S.

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