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Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease 11 th edition Chapter 8 The Muscular.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease 11 th edition Chapter 8 The Muscular."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Memmler’s The Human Body in Health and Disease 11 th edition Chapter 8 The Muscular System

2 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Types of Muscle Smooth Cardiac Skeletal

3 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Smooth Muscle Makes up walls of hollow body organs, respiratory passageways Involuntary movement Cell structure –Tapered ends –Single, central nucleus –No visible bands (striations) Stimulated by nerve impulses, hormones, stretching

4 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Cardiac Muscle Makes up wall of heart Involuntary movement Cell structure –Branching interconnections –Single, central nucleus –Striated –Membranes are intercalated disks Stimulated by electrical impulses, nervous stimuli, hormones

5 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Skeletal Muscle Attached to bones, muscles, or skin Voluntary movement Cell structure –Long and cylindrical –Multiple nuclei per cell –Heavily striated Stimulated by nervous system

6 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Checkpoint 8-1: What are the three types of muscle?

7 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question: Which type of muscle has intercalated disks? a. smooth muscle b. cardiac muscle c. skeletal muscle

8 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer: b. cardiac muscle

9 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Muscular System Skeletal muscle has three primary functions Skeletal movement Posture maintenance Heat generation

10 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Checkpoint 8-2: What are the three main functions of skeletal muscle?

11 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Structure of a Muscle Fascicles (muscle fibers) Endomysium Perimysium Epimysium (deep fascia) Tendons

12 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Structure of a skeletal muscle. (A)Structure of a muscle showing the tendon that attaches it to a bone. (B) Muscle tissue seen under a microscope. Portions of several fascicles are shown with connective tissue coverings. ZOOMING IN What is the innermost layer of connective tissue in a muscle? What layer of connective tissue surrounds a fascicle of muscle fibers?

13 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question: What is the name of the connective tissue structure that connects muscle to bone? a. fascicle b. ligament c. tendon

14 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer: c. tendon

15 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Muscle Cells in Action Motor unit is a single neuron and all the muscle fibers it stimulates Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) –Neurotransmitter –Synaptic cleft –Receptors –Motor end plate

16 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Checkpoint 8-3: Muscles are activated by the nervous system. What is the name of the special synapse where a nerve cell makes contact with a muscle cell? Checkpoint 8-4: What neurotransmitter is involved in the stimulation of skeletal muscle cells?

17 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Neuromuscular junction (NMJ). (A) The branched end of a motor neuron makes contact with the membrane of a muscle fiber (cell). (B) Enlarged view of the NMJ showing release of neurotransmitter (acetylcholine) into the synaptic cleft. (C) Acetylcholine attaches to receptors in the motor end plate, whose folds increase surface area. (D) Electron microscope photograph of the neuromuscular junction.

18 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Properties of Muscle Tissue Excitability –Action potential Contractility –Actin –Myosin –Sarcomere –ATP

19 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Sliding filament mechanism of skeletal muscle contraction. (A)Muscle is relaxed and there is no contact between the actin and myosin filaments. (B)Cross-bridges form and the actin filaments are moved closer together as the muscle fiber contracts. (C) The cross-bridges return to their original position and attach to new sites to prepare for another pull on the actin filaments and further contraction. ZOOMING IN Do the actin or myosin filaments change in length as contraction proceeds?

20 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Checkpoint 8-5: What are two properties of muscle cells that are needed for response to a stimulus? Checkpoint 8-6: What are the filaments that interact to produce muscle contraction?

21 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Role of Calcium Calcium Is released when nerve fiber stimulates muscle cell Attaches to proteins blocking receptor sites Allows cross-bridges to form between actin and myosin Returns to endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is called “sarcoplasmic reticulum” in muscle cells.

22 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Energy Sources Muscle contraction requires energy (ATP), oxidized in muscle cells from Oxygen Glucose or other usable nutrient Compounds in muscle cells that store oxygen, energy, or nutrients Myoglobin Glycogen Creatine phosphate

23 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Checkpoint 8-7: What mineral is needed to allow actin and myosin to interact? Checkpoint 8-8: Muscle cells obtain energy for contraction from the oxidation of nutrients. What compound is formed in oxidation that supplies the energy for contraction?

24 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Oxygen Consumption Aerobic glucose metabolism Anaerobic glucose metabolism –Inefficient production –Lactic acid accumulation –Oxygen debt –Recovery oxygen consumption

25 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Checkpoint 8-9: When muscles work without oxygen, a compound is produced that causes muscle fatigue. What is the name of this compound?

26 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Effects of Exercise Improved balance, joint flexibility Increase in muscle size (hypertrophy) Improvements in muscle tissue Vasodilation Strengthened heart muscle Improved breathing and respiratory efficiency Weight control Stronger bones

27 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Types of Muscle Contractions Partial (muscle tone or tonus) Isotonic –No change in tension –Muscle length shortens –Movement Isometric –Great increase in tension –Muscle length unchanged –No movement

28 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question: The partially contracted state of muscle is known as what? a. tonus b. tension c. torsion

29 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer: a. tonus

30 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins The Mechanics of Muscle Movement Tendons attach muscles to bones Origin—attached to more fixed part of skeleton Insertion—attached to more moveable part of skeleton

31 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Checkpoint 8-10: Muscles are attached to bones by means of tendons: one attached to a less movable part of the skeleton and one attached to a movable part. What are the names of these two attachment points?

32 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Muscles Work Together Many muscles function in pairs Prime movers Antagonists Synergists In development, nervous system must learn to coordinate movement. Children learning new skills may use some muscles unnecessarily or not use the correct muscles.

33 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Checkpoint 8-11: Muscles work together to produce movement. What is the name of the muscle that produces a movement as compared with the muscle that produces an opposite movement?

34 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question: What is the name for a muscle that helps the prime mover and the antagonist muscles? a. a supplemental b. an effector c. a synergist

35 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer: c. a synergist

36 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Levers and Body Mechanics Musculoskeletal system as a lever system Lever—bone Fulcrum—joint Force—applied by muscle Three classes of levers First class Second class Third class—most body systems

37 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Three classes of levers are shown along with tools and anatomic examples that illustrate each type. R = resistance (weight); E = effort (force); F = fulcrum (pivot point).

38 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Checkpoint 8-12: Muscles and bones work together as lever systems. Of the three classes of levers, which one represents the action of most muscles?

39 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Skeletal Muscle Groups Characteristics for naming muscles (often combined) Location Size Shape Direction of fibers Number of heads (attachment points) Action

40 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Superficial muscles, anterior view. Associated structure is labeled in parentheses.

41 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Superficial muscles, posterior view. Associated structures are labeled in parentheses.

42 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Muscles of the Head Facial expression (orbicularis) muscles –Orbicularis oculi –Orbicularis oris –Levator palpebrae superioris –Buccinator Mastication (chewing) muscles –Temporalis –Masseter –Intrinsic –Extrinsic

43 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Muscles of the head. Associated structure is labeled in parentheses. ZOOMING IN Which of the muscles in this illustration is named for a bone it is near?

44 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question: What is the name for the muscle that surrounds the eye? a. orbicularis oculi b. orbicularis oris c. frontalis

45 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer: a. orbicularis oculi

46 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Muscles of the Neck Are ribbonlike Extend up, down, or obliquely Extend in several layers in a complex manner Most common is sternocleidomastoid

47 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Muscles of the Upper Extremities Position the shoulder Move the arm Move the forearm and hand

48 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Muscles That Move the Shoulder and Arm Trapezius Latissimus dorsi Pectoralis major Serratus anterior Deltoid Rotator cuff –Supraspinatus –Infraspinatus –Teres minor –Subscapularis

49 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand Brachialis Biceps brachii Brachioradialis Triceps brachii Flexor carpi Extensor carpi Flexor digitorum Extensor digitorum

50 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Muscles that move the forearm and hand.

51 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Muscles of the Trunk Breathing muscles Abdominal muscles Pelvic floor muscles Deep back muscles

52 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Muscles of Respiration Diaphragm Intercostal muscles

53 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Muscles of respiration. Associated structures are also shown.

54 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Checkpoint 8-13: What muscle is most important in breathing?

55 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Muscles of the Abdomen and Pelvis External oblique Internal oblique Transversus abdominis Rectus abdominis Levator ani

56 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Muscles of the abdominal wall. Surface tissue is removed on the right side to show deeper muscles. Associated structures are labeled in parentheses.

57 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Muscles of the female perineum (pelvic floor). Associated structures are labeled in parentheses.

58 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Checkpoint 8-14: What structural feature gives strength to the muscles of the abdominal wall?

59 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Deep Muscles of the Back Erector spinae Deeper muscles in the lumbar area

60 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Muscles of the Lower Extremities Among the longest and strongest in the body Specialized for locomotion and balance

61 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Muscles That Move the Thigh and Leg Gluteus maximus Gluteus medius Iliopsoas Adductors Sartorius Iliotibial (IT) tract Hamstrings

62 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Muscles of the thigh. Associated structures are labeled in parentheses.

63 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question: What is the name of the thickened band of fascia that covers the lateral thigh muscles? a. sartorius b. adductor longus c. ileotibial tract

64 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer: c. ileotibial tract

65 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Muscles That Move the Foot Gastrocnemius Achilles tendon Soleus Tibialis anterior Peroneus longus Flexor and extensor muscles

66 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Muscles that move the foot. Associated structures are labeled in parentheses

67 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Effects of Aging on Muscles Beginning at about age 40 Gradual loss of muscle cells Loss of power Tendency to flex hips and knees Decrease in height

68 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Muscular Disorders Spasms –Colic –Seizure or convulsion Cramps Strains Sprains Atrophy

69 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Question: True or False?: A strain is a more serious muscle injury than a sprain.

70 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Answer: False: A sprain, which usually involves a ligament tear, is more serious than a strain.

71 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Diseases of Muscles Muscular dystrophy Myasthenia gravis Myalgia Myositis Fibrositis Fibromyositis Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS)

72 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Disorders of Associated Structures Bursitis Bunions Tendinitis Tenosynovitis Shinsplints Carpal tunnel syndrome

73 Copyright © 2009 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins End of Presentation


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