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Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 7: The Muscular System.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 7: The Muscular System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Chapter 7: The Muscular System

2 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body Types of Muscle

3 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body The Muscular System Skeletal Muscle Has Three Primary Functions: Skeletal movement Posture maintenance Heat generation

4 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body The Muscular System Muscle Structure Fascicles –Bundles of muscle cells (fibers) that make up a whole muscle Connective tissue –Hold fascicles and whole muscle together –Three layers Endomysium Perimysium Epimysium Tendons

5 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body The Muscular System Muscle Cells in Action Motor unit: A single neuron and all the muscle fibers it stimulates –Small motor units used for fine movements –Large motor units used for broad movements

6 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body The Muscular System Muscle Cells in Action Neuromuscular junction (NMJ): The point at which a nerve fiber contacts a muscle fiber –A type of synapse –NMJ anatomy Motor neuron Neurotransmitter (acetylcholine; ACh) Motor end plate (on muscle fiber)  Contains acetylcholine receptors

7 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body The Muscular System Muscle Cells in Action NMJ allows motor neuron to stimulate muscle fiber to become electrically excited (action potential) Action potential stimulates muscle contraction Events at the NMJ –Ach is released from motor neuron into synaptic cleft –Ach diffuses across synaptic cleft towards motor end plate –Ach binds to receptors on motor end plate and stimulates action potential

8 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body The Muscular System Muscle Cells in Action The sarcomere is the functional unit of contraction in the skeletal muscle fiber Sarcomere anatomy: –Thick filaments (myosin) –Thin filaments (actin) –Regulatory proteins Troponin Tropomyosin

9 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body The Muscular System Muscle Cells in Action Sarcomeres contract via the sliding filament mechanism: –Myosin heads bind to actin, forming cross-bridges –Using stored energy, myosin heads pull actin filaments together within the sarcomeres and the cell shortens –New ATP is used to detach myosin heads and move them back into position for another “power stroke”

10 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body Figure 7-4 Sliding filament mechanism of skeletal muscle contraction. Sliding filament mechanism of skeletal muscle contraction.

11 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body The Muscular System Muscle Cells in Action Calcium regulates sarcomeric contraction within the muscle cell: –Action potential from NMJ travels to sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) –SR releases calcium into cytoplasm –Calcium shifts troponin and tropomyosin off of thin filament soit blocks the sites on actin filaments where cross-bridges form –Muscle relaxes when stimulation ends and calcium is pumped back into SR

12 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body The Muscular System Summary of Events in a Muscle Contraction 1.ACh is released from neuron ending into synaptic cleft at NMJ 2.ACh binds to motor end plate and produces action potential 3.Action potential travels to sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) 4.SR releases calcium into cytoplasm 5.Calcium shifts troponin and tropomyosin so that binding sites on actin are exposed

13 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body The Muscular System Summary of Events in a Muscle Contraction (continued) 6.Myosin heads bind to actin, forming cross-bridges 7.Using stored energy, myosin heads pull actin filaments together within sarcomeres and cell shortens 8.New ATP is used to detach myosin heads and move them back to position for another “power stroke” 9.Muscle relaxes when stimulation ends and calcium is pumped back into SR

14 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body The Muscular System Energy Sources Muscle contraction requires ATP Skeletal muscle prefers to produces ATP via aerobic metabolism, which requires –Oxygen –Glucose Storage compounds ensure an adequate supply of oxygen and glucose for aerobic ATP metabolism –Myoglobin Stores additional oxygen, located in muscle cells –Glycogen

15 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body The Muscular System Energy Sources During strenuous activity, muscle cells use anaerobic ATP metabolism which causes an oxygen debt and does not require ATP –Breakdown of creatine phosphate –Anaerobic glycolysis Lactic acid accumulation and oxygen debt Excess postexercise oxygen consumption –After strenuous exercise, person takes in extra oxygen (via rapid breathing) to remove lactic acid and replenish energy stores

16 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body The Muscular System Effects of Exercise Improved balance, joint flexibility Increased muscle size (hypertrophy) Improved muscle tissue Vasodilation Strengthened heart muscle Improved breathing and respiratory efficiency Weight control Stronger bones

17 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body The Muscular System Types of Muscle Contractions Partial (muscle tone or tonus) –Partially contracted state that is normal Isotonic –No change in tension –Muscle length shortens –Movement Isometric –Great increase in tension –Muscle length unchanged –No movement

18 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body The Mechanics of Muscle Movement Tendons attach muscles to bones. –Origin: Attached to more fixed part of skeleton –Insertion: Attached to more movable part of skeleton

19 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body Figure 7-6 Muscle attachments to bones.

20 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body The Mechanics of Muscle Movement Muscles Work Together Many muscles function in pairs –Prime movers Movement by a muscle –Antagonists Produces opposite movment –Synergists helpers

21 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body The Mechanics of Muscle Movement Levers and Body Mechanics Musculoskeletal system as a lever system –Lever—bone –Fulcrum—joint –Force—applied by muscle Three classes of levers –First class –Second class –Third class—most body systems

22 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body

23 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body Skeletal Muscle Groups Characteristics for Naming Muscles

24 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body

25 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body

26 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body Skeletal Muscle Groups Muscles of the Head and Neck

27 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body Figure 7-10 Muscles of the head and neck.

28 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body Skeletal Muscle Groups Muscles That Move the Shoulder and Arm

29 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body Skeletal Muscle Groups Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand

30 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body Skeletal Muscle Groups Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand (continued)

31 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body Figure Muscles that move the forearm and hand.

32 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body Skeletal Muscle Groups Muscles of the Trunk

33 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body Figure 7-12 Muscles of respiration.

34 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body Figure 7-13 Muscles of the abdominal wall.

35 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body Skeletal Muscle Groups Muscles That Move the Leg and Thigh

36 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body Skeletal Muscle Groups Muscles That Move the Leg and Thigh (continued)

37 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body Figure 7-15 Muscles of the thigh. How many muscles make up the quadriceps femoris?

38 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body Skeletal Muscle Groups Muscles That Move the Foot

39 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body Figure 7-16 Muscles that move the foot.

40 Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Taylor: Structure and Function of the Human Body Effects of Aging on Muscles Beginning at about age 40 Gradual loss of muscle cells Loss of power Tendency to flex hips and knees Decrease in height


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