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Muscular System Chapter 16 (pgs 310-324).

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Presentation on theme: "Muscular System Chapter 16 (pgs 310-324)."— Presentation transcript:

1 Muscular System Chapter 16 (pgs )

2 Muscular System Muscles responsible for all types of body movement
3 basic muscle types found in body: Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle Skeletal muscle

3 Muscle Types

4 Cardiac Muscle Only found in heart Striated and branched Involuntary
Membranes of adjacent cells fused at intercalated discs

5 Cardiac Muscle

6 Smooth Muscle Small and spindle shaped
Unmarked by an distinctive striations aka Visceral Involuntary Unattached to bones Act slowly Do not tire easily Can remain contracted for long time Actions controlled by autonomic nervous system Found in wall of internal organs Stomach Intestines Uterus Blood vessels

7 Smooth Muscle

8 Sphincter Muscle aka Dilator Special circular muscles
Open/close to control passages of substances Found: Esophagus-stomach Stomach-small intestine Walls of anus, urethra, mouth

9 Sphincter Muscle Explain acid reflux

10 Skeletal Muscle Attached to bone of skeleton Striped or striated
Have cross-bandings of alternating light/dark bands running perpendicular to length of muscle aka Voluntary muscle Movement to limbs Contract quickly Fatigue easily Lack ability to remain contracted for prolong periods

11 Skeletal Muscle

12 Muscle Types

13 Properties of Muscle Contractility Excitability Extensibility
Ability to shorten, reducing distance between two parts Excitability Ability to respond to stimuli Extensibility Ability to lengthen; increase distance between two parts Elasticity Ability to return to normal shape

14 Structure of a Skeletal Muscle

15 Sarcomere Sliding filament theory:

16 Skeletal Muscle Function Produce movement Maintain posture
Stabilize joints Generate heat Site of muscle attachments Bones Cartilage Connective tissue coverings More than 650 diff muscles in body; for these muscle to produce movement it must be able to exert force upon moveable object Muscle attach to bone, bones connected by joints, skeletal muscle bridge these joints, R. skeletal muscle contracts bone to which it attached will move

17 Naming Skeletal Muscles
Direction of muscle fibers Location of muscle Size Number of origins Shape Location of muscle origin and/or insertion Action

18 Direction of Muscle Fibers
Relative to midline RECTUS = parallel to midline Rectus Abdominus TRANSVERSE = perpendicular to midline Transverse Abdominus OBLIQUE = diagonal to midline External Oblique

19 Location Structure near which muscle is found
FRONTALIS = near frontal bone OCCIPITALIS = near occipital bone

20 Size Relative size of muscle MAXIMUS = largest MEDIUS = middle
Gluteus Maximus MEDIUS = middle Gluteus Medius MINIMUS = smallest Gluteus Minimus LONGUS = longest Fibrularis Longus BREVIS = short Fibrularis Brevis TERTIUS = shortest Fibularis Tertius

21 Number of Origins Number of tendons of origin BICEPS = two
Biceps Brachii Biceps Femoris TRICEPS = three Triceps Brachii QUADRICEPS = four Quadriceps Femoris

22 Shape Relative shape of the muscle DELTOID = triangular shape
TRAPEZIUS = trapezoid shape SERRATUS = saw-toothed RHOMBOIDEUS = rhomboid shape TERES = round

23 Origin & Insertion Origin—attachment to an immoveable bone
Insertion—attachment to a moveable bone ILIO COSTALIS = attaches to the ilium & ribs (costal = ribs) Belly—the central part of a muscle Belly: central body of muscle

24 Origin & Insertion Biceps Brachii Triceps
O: coracoid process, supraglenoid tubercle I: radial tuberosity Triceps O: infraglenoid tubercle of scapula, posterior humerus I: olecranon process of ulna O both of scapula

25 ORIGIN Upper half of lateral shaft of tibia and interosseous membrane
BICEPS BRACHII TIBIALIS ANTERIOR ORIGIN Upper half of lateral shaft of tibia and interosseous membrane INSERTION Inferomedial aspect of medial cuneiform and base of 1st metatarsal ACTION Extends and inverts foot at ankle. Holds up medial longitudinal arch of foot NERVE Deep peroneal nerve (L4, 5) ORIGIN Long head:supraglenoid tubercle of scapula. Short head: coracoid process of scapula with coracobrachialis INSERTION posterior border of bicipital tuberosity of radius (over bursa) and bicipital aponeurosis to deep fascia and subcutaneous ulna ACTION Supinates forearm, flexes elbow, weakly flexes shoulder NERVE Musculocutaneous nerve (C5, 6) (from lateral cord)

26 Action Name Action Example FLEXOR Decrease angle at a joint
Flexor Carpi Radialis EXTENSOR Increase angle at a joint Extensor Carpi Ulnaris ABDUCTOR Move bone away from midline Abductor Pollicis Longus ADDUCTOR Move bone toward midline Adductor Longus LEVATOR Produce upward movement Levator Scapulae DEPRESSOR Produce downward movement Depressor Labii Inferioris SUPINATOR Turn palm upward/anterior Supinator PRONATOR Turn palm downward/posterior Pronator Teres

27 Types of Muscle—Actions
Prime mover (agonist)—muscle with the major responsibility for certain movement Antagonist—muscle that opposes or reverses a prime mover Synergist—muscle that aids a prime mover in a movement and helps prevent rotation Fixator—stabilizes the origin of a prime mover Arranged in pairs

28 Muscle Injuries

29 Acute Muscle Injuries Contusions Strains Tendon Injuries Cramps/spasms
Overexertional problems

30 Contusion Bruise Sudden traumatic blow to body (severe compression force) Not penetrate skin Usually injury to blood vessels Superficial, deep, or hemorrhage Hematoma (blood tumor): formation caused by pooling of blood and fluid w/in a tissue space Speed of healing depends on tissue damage and internal bleeding Bone bruise: contusion penetrates to skeletal structures

31 Contusion Symptoms: Treatment: PRICE, stretch
Swelling Point tenderness Redness Ecchymosis Treatment: PRICE, stretch Complication: myositis ossificans—calcification of the muscle to bone

32 Strains Stretch, tear, or rip in the muscle or adjacent tissue (fascia or muscle tendon) Severe tension force Common sites: Hamstring Quadriceps Hip flexor Biceps Latissimus dorsi

33 Strains Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Some muscle fibers stretched or torn
Some tenderness/pain with AROM Grade 2 Number of muscle fibers torn Active contraction of muscle extremely painful Grade 3 Complete rupture of muscle (MTJ) Significant impairment or total loss of movement Grade 1: movement painful but full range possible Grade 2: usually depression or divot can be felt; some swelling my occur b/c of capillary bleeding; discoloration possible Grade 3: initial intense pain but quickly diminishes b/c complete nerve fiber separation

34 Strains Prevention Signs & Symptoms Proper warm-up Localized swelling
Stretch Proper mechanics Proper cool-down/ stretch Proper nutrition & hydration Signs & Symptoms Localized swelling Cramping Inflammation Loss of function Pain General weakness Discoloration

35 Strains Treatment Severe— Reduce swelling & pain NSAIDs Hard cast

36 Tendon Injuries— Anatomy of a Tendon
Extension of muscle Musculotendinous junction Contains wavy parallel collagenous fibers organized in bundles surrounded by gelatinous material that decreases friction Connects muscle to bone Concentrates pulling forces in limited area Not as elastic May run through sheath Tendons can produce and maintain a pull from 8700 to pounds per square inch; when tendon is loaded by tension, wavy collagenous fibers straighten in direction of load; when tension is released, collagen returns to original shape; collagen fibers will break if physiological limits have been reached

37 Tendon Injuries Tears commonly at muscle belly, musculotendinous junction, or bony attachment Tendon double strength muscle it serves Tendonitis: inflammation of tendon-muscle attachments, tendons, or both Tenosynovitis: inflammation of synovial sheath surrounding tendon

38 Tendonitis Signs & Symptoms Treatment Prevention Pain & inflammation
Worse with movement Worse at night Treatment PRICE NSAIDs Ultrasound therapy Rehabilitation Prevention Slowly increase intensity & type of exercise Don’t try to do more than ready for Proper warm-up & stretch

39 Cramps/Spasms Cramp: painful involuntary contraction of a skeletal muscle or muscle group Spasm: reflex reaction caused by trauma of musculoskeletal system Cramps attributed to lack of water or other electrolyte imbalance in relation to muscle fatigue → Can lead to muscle and tendon injuries

40 Overexertion Muscle Injuries
Soreness Muscular pain from strenuous muscular exercise DOMS Preventative Treatment Stiffness Occurs when muscles worked hard for long period of time Fluids that collect in muscle during/after activity absorbed in bloodstream slowly Result in swollen, shorter, thicker muscle that resist stretching AOMS: acute-onset muscle soreness; occurs immediately after exercise DOMS: delayed-onset muscle soreness; most intense hours after activity then gradually subsides so that muscle symptom-free after 3-4 days; small tears in muscle tissue; disruption of connective tissue that holds muscle tendon fibers together; prevented: beginning exercise at moderate level and gradually increasing intensity over time; tx: static or PNF stretching, ice applied w/in first hrs

41 Chronic Musculotendinous Injuries
Myositis: inflammation of muscle tissue Fasciitis: inflammation of muscle fascia Fascia supports and separates muscle Tendinitis Tenosynovitis

42 Chronic Musculotendinous Injuries
Ectopic Calcification Myositis ossificans Occur in muscle directly overlies bone Atrophy Wasting away of muscle tissue Immobilization of body part; loss of nerve simulation Contracture Abnormal shortening of muscle tissue Resistance to passive stretch Associated with joint developed resisting scar tissue Ectopic: located in place diff than normal

43 Critical Thinking Football player who plays wide receiver sustains repeated blows his to left quadriceps muscle. What should he be most concerned about? What type of injury could be sustained from repeated compressive forces to the quad muscle?



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