Nomenclature HC 2 H 3 O 2 Acetic Acid C 2 H 3 O 2 - acetate ion
Forms of Chemical Bonds There are 3 forms bonding atoms: Ionic—complete transfer of 1 or more electrons from one atom to another (one loses, the other gains) Covalent—some valence electrons shared between atoms Metallic– holds atoms of a metal together Most bonds are somewhere in between ionic and covalent.
NAMING COMPOUNDS Your ability to name compounds and write formula’s hinges on your ability to recognize whether a compound is Ionic or Molecular.
COMPOUNDS FORMED FROM IONS CATION + ANION ---> COMPOUND COMPOUND CATION + ANION ---> COMPOUND COMPOUND Na + + Cl - --> NaCl A neutral compound requires equal number of + equal number of + and - charges. A neutral compound requires equal number of + equal number of + and - charges.
Naming Monatomic Ions Monatomic cations are identified simply by the element’s name. Examples: K + is called the potassium cation Mg 2+ is called the magnesium cation
Naming Monatomic Ions For monatomic anions, the ending of the element’s name is dropped, and the ending –ide is addend to the root name. Examples: F - is called the fluoride anion N 3+ is called the nitride anion
Two Types of Compounds Smallest piece Melting Point State Types of elements Formula UnitMolecule Metal and Nonmetal Nonmetals solid Solid, liquid or gas High >300ºCLow <300ºC IonicMolecular
Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Binary ionic compounds involve combining the manes of the cation and anion that makes up the compound. The name of the cation is given first, followed by the name of the anion – Example: Aluminum Oxide Al 2 O 3 Name of cation Aluminum Name of anion Oxide
Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Examples: NaCl ZnI 2 Al 2 O 3 sodium chloride zinc iodide aluminum oxide
Learning Check Complete the names of the following binary compounds: Na 3 Nsodium __________________ KBrpotassium________________ Al 2 O 3 aluminum ________________ MgS_________________________ nitride bromide oxide Magnesium sulfide
Writing the formulas of Binary Ionic Compounds 1. Find the charge for each atom. (Remember: if you don’t see a number, then it is implied to be a 1) 2.Switch the numbers on the elements.(you want to balance the positive charges and the negative charges.) Mg 2+ Cl -
Writing the formulas of Binary Ionic Compounds 3. Write your formula. (Remember + and - signs Go away.) There is one catch! If the charges have the same magnitude, then the ions will form a compound with a 1:1 ratio. MgCl 2 Mg +2 O 2- MgO
Learning Check Write the correct formula for the compounds containing the following ions: 1. Na +, S 2- a) NaS b) Na 2 Sc) NaS 2 2. Al 3+, Cl - a) AlCl 3 b) AlCl c) Al 3 Cl 3. Mg 2+, N 3- a) MgN b) Mg 2 N 3 c) Mg 3 N 2
Stock system of Nomenclature Transition metals (the d-block elements) can form two or more cations with different charges. These elements REQUIRE Roman Numerals because they can have more than one possible charge: anything except Group 1A, 2A, Ag, Zn, Cd, and Al – Examples: Fe2+ Iron (II) Fe3+Iron (III)
Learning Check Complete the names of the following binary compounds with variable metal ions: FeBr 2 iron (_____) bromide CuClcopper (_____) chloride SnO 2 ___(_____ ) ______________ Fe 2 O 3 ________________________ Hg 2 S________________________ II I Tin oxide IV Iron (III ) oxide Mercury (I) sulfide
Polyatomic Ions NO 3 - nitrate ion NO 2 - nitrite ion
Naming Oxyanions Oxyanion: polyatomic ions that contains oxygen. Some elements can combine with oxygen to form more than one type of oxyanion. Example: nitrogen can form NO 3 - or NO 2 -. The name of the ion with the greater number of oxygen atoms ends in –ate. The name of the ion with the smaller number of oxygen atoms ends in –ite. NO 3 - NO 2 - Nitrate Nitrite
Naming Oxyanions In this example, an anion that has one fewer oxygen atom than the –ite anion has is given the prefix hypo-. An anion that has one more oxygen atom that the –ate anion has is given the prefix per-. ClO - ClO 2 - ClO 3 - ClO 4 - hypochlorite chloritechlorateperchlorate
Ternary Ionic Nomenclature (Polyatomic Ions) Ionic compounds involving polyatomic ions are named in the same way as binary compounds. The name of the cation is given first followed by the name of the anion Example Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 NH 4 Cl Aluminum sulfate Ammonium chloride
Learning Check Na 2 CO 3 MgSO 3 MgSO 4 Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 CaCO 3 Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 sodium carbonate magnesium sulfite magnesium sulfate calcium bicarbonate calcium carbonate calcium phosphate
Ternary Ionic Nomenclature Writing Formulas 1. Find the charge for each atom. (Remember: if you don’t see a number, then it is implied to be a 1. It helps to circle the ions) 2. Switch the numbers on the elements.(you want to balance the positive charges and the negative charges.) K + SO 4 2-
Ternary Ionic Nomenclature Writing Formulas 3. Write your formula. (Remember + and - signs Go away.) K 2 SO 4 There is one catch! If you need more than one of the polyatomic ions to make the charge neutral, you must enclose it in parenthesis. Ca +2 CH 3 COO - Ca(CH 3 OO) 2
Ternary Ionic Nomenclature Sodium Sulfate Na + and SO 4 -2 Na 2 SO 4 Iron (III) hydroxide Fe +3 and OH - Fe(OH) 3 Ammonium carbonate NH 4 + and CO 3 –2 (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3
Learning Check 1. aluminum nitrate a) AlNO 3 b) Al(NO) 3 c) Al(NO 3 ) 3 2. copper(II) nitrate a) CuNO 3 b) Cu(NO 3 ) 2 c) Cu 2 (NO 3 ) 3. Iron (III) hydroxide a) FeOHb) Fe 3 OHc) Fe(OH) 3 4. Tin(IV) hydroxide a) Sn(OH) 4 b) Sn(OH) 2 c) Sn 4 (OH)
Mixed Practice! Name the following: 1.Na 2 O 2.CaCO 3 3.PbS 2 4.Sn 3 N 2 5.Cu 3 PO 4 6.HgF 2 Sodium oxide Calcium carbonate Lead (IV) sulfide Tin (II) nitride Copper (I) phosphate Mercury (II) fluoride
Naming Molecular Compounds CH 4 methane BCl 3 boron trichloride CO 2 Carbon dioxide All are formed from two or more nonmetals.
Molecular (Covalent) Nomenclature 1.Less electronegative atom comes first. It is given a prefix only it is contributes more than one atom to the molecule. In general, the order of nonmetals in molecular names and formulas (which one comes first): C, P, N, H, S, I, Br, Cl, O, F
Molecular (Covalent)Nomenclature 2.The second element is named by combining: a prefix indicating the number of atoms contributed by the element. The root word of the second element. The ending changes to –ide.
Molecular (Covalent)Nomenclature 3.The o or a at the end of a prefix is dropped if the main word starts with a vowel. P 4 O 10 tetraphosphorus decoxide
Learning Check CO carbon ______oxide CO 2 carbon _______________ PCl 3 phosphorus_______chloride CCl 4 carbon ________chloride N 2 O_____nitrogen _____oxide mon dioxide tri tetra di mon
Learning Check 1.P 2 O 5 a) phosphorus oxide b) phosphorus pentoxide c) diphosphorus pentoxide 2.Cl 2 O 7 a) dichlorine heptoxide b) dichlorine oxide c) chlorine heptoxide 3. NF 3 a) nitrogen trifluoride b) mononitrogen fluoride c) nitrogen difluoride
Acid: usually refers to a solution in water of an acid compound rather that the acid itself. – Formulas usually begin with ‘H’. – In binary acids, there are only two elements that make up the molecule. Example HF, hydrofluoric acid – In ternary acids are ALL aqueous and are made up of at least one polyatomic ion. Example :H 2 SO 4 – sulfuric acid Acid Nomenclature
No Oxygen w/Oxygen An easy way to remember which goes with which for those that contain oxygen… “In the cafeteria, you ATE something ICky”
HBr (aq) H 2 CO 3 H 2 SO 3 No oxygen, -ide Has oxygen, -ate Has oxygen, -ite hydrobromic acid carbonic acid sulfurous acid Learning Check
hydrofluoric acid sulfuric acid nitrous acid 2 elements2 elements 3 elements, -ic3 elements, -ic 3 elements, -ous3 elements, -ous HF (aq) H 2 SO 4 HNO 2 Learning Check H + F- H + SO 4 2- H + NO 2 -