Nomenclature : Naming Chemicals PO 4 3- phosphate ion C 2 H 3 O 2 - acetate ion HC 2 H 3 O 2 Acetic Acid
Before naming…. Some things you MUST know to be successful…. You really need to commit these things to memory
Ions: Atoms or groups of atoms with a _________. Cations- ________ions - get by losing electron(s). Anions- ________ ions - get by gaining electron(s). Ionic bonding- held together by the ______________ (_____________________). Ionic solids are called ________. Salts are __________________; they conduct electricity when dissolved in water (aq.)
Metals Conductors of heat and electricity Make ________ (lose e - to become + charged) Malleable (made into ________) Ductile (made into ________)
Nonmetals Are a ________ _______ or a _______ Make ________ (gain e - to become - charged) __________ bond to each other
Semi-metals (AKA ________) Characteristics of _____ metals and nonmetals More ________ as you go down PT
Predicting Charges on Monatomic Ions KNOW THESE !!!! +1 +2 -3 -2 -1 0 Cd +2 Variable, always +
Polyatomic Ions _______ of covalently bonded atoms that have a charge. * NO 3 - :___________ * NO 2 - :___________ Yes, you have to memorize them. Listed in your resource handbook: memorize the required list!!!!
Patterns for Polyatomic Ions -ate ion – _________________________________ -ate ion plus 1 O same charge, ___- prefix – _________________________________ -ate ion minus 1 O same charge, -___ suffix – _________________________________ -ate ion minus 2 O same charge, ___- prefix, -___ suffix – _________________________________
Polyatomic Ions You can make additional polyatomic ions by adding a __ to the ion! CO 3 -2 is carbonate: –HCO 3 – is ______________________ PO 4 3- is phosphate: –HPO 4 2- is ______________________ –H 2 PO 4 – is ______________________ SO 4 2- is sulfate –HSO 4 – is ______________________
The 3 types of Chemical Bonds: ________, _______ and _________ Electronegativity and Bond Type – Bond type can be determined by the difference in electronegativity (degree of sharing of e-) between the elements involved – Differences of: ≥ 2 =_________________ 0.5-1.9 = ______________________ ≤ 0.4 = ____________________________ Metals bonded to other metals are ___________________ bonded, regardless of the difference in electronegativity.
Metallic bonds –The atoms of metals are held together when the atom’s _________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ –__________________ keep everything together
Ionic Bonds Complete _______ of 1 or more electrons from one atom to another (or a _____________________) one _____ one or more e -, the other ____ those e - s Atoms involved are _______________________________________ _______________________________________ The cation and anion are attracted to each other by _______________________
Ionic compounds are neutral Ionic compounds are ______________ – That is, they have no __________ charge This is because the number of electrons _____ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ ______________________________________ – Formulas reflect this neutrality- the charges on the individual ions are not written in because they _________________ _____________________________________
CATION + ANION ---> COMPOUND COMPOUND CATION + ANION ---> COMPOUND COMPOUND A neutral compound requires requires COMPOUNDS FORMED FROM IONS Na + + Cl - --> NaCl
Covalent Bonds –________________valence electrons that are ______________between atoms –We are going to name only simple covalent compounds that have 2 elements involved
Most bonds are somewhere in between ionic and covalent Because not all atoms __________________________ The conventions of naming assume _____________ _____________________in bond types Metals bonded to nonmetals or polyatomic ions are classified as having ionic bonds* Materials made out of all non-metals are classified as having covalent bonds* * _____________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________. For more on this, go back to bonding
Naming things: If there is only one element present, ________ ____. Atomic substances do not require “special” naming. For anything with more than one element, remember that there is ONE MAIN THING to look for: – Is there a ______________________?
So… some general help for naming: – Look to see if there is a ________ ______in the formula – Again, semimetals are not a classification in naming; _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ If there are only metals, __________________________ – (metallic bonding; nothing else need be done) If ________the first element is a metal, then the compound is an ________________ compound Nonmetals _________ signify a _______ compound There is a flow chart in your handbook to help!
Naming ionic compounds: Remember that those are compounds that have a metal first in the formula*, and then a _______________________________________. We can handle these as simple types – _______________(2 elements) compounds – ___________(more than 2 element) compounds Names are always for the smallest whole number ratio of the elements, the ___________ *Two exceptions to this rule: – Compounds that start with either ammoniums (NH 4 + ) or hydronium (H 3 O + )
General information for naming ionic compounds:
Specifics for binary ionic compounds: 1.Name the cation first, then the anion root with an –ide suffix 2.For CaCl 2, the monatomic cation is Ca 2+, calcium, and the monatomic anion is Cl , named chloride. 3. We use chloride because the root for chlorine is chlor, and we use = root + -ide for the second element in binary compounds CaCl 2 = calcium chloride Example: CaCl 2, or calcium chloride
Learning Check Complete the names of the following binary compounds: Na 3 N KBr Al 2 O 3 MgS
If the Metal is a Transition Metal… __________________________are Type II Cations, and are elements that can have ______________ ______________________. They MUST have a ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ __ 1+ or 2+ 2+ or 3+ Cu +, Cu 2+ Fe 2+, Fe 3+ ______________________________________________ ________________________________________________
Type II Cations These elements REQUIRE Roman Numerals because they can have more than one possible charge: anything except Group 1A, 2A, Ag, Zn, Cd, and Al (You should already know the charges on these!) Or another way to say it is: Transition metals and the metals in groups 4A and 5A (except Ag, Zn, Cd, and Al) require a Roman Numeral. FeCl 3 (Fe 3+ ) ____________________ CuCl (Cu + ) ____________________ SnF 4 (Sn 4+ ) ____________________ PbCl 2 (Pb 2+ ) ____________________ Fe 2 S 3 (Fe 3+ ) ____________________ You will appreciate this more when we go from names to formulas!
Type II Cations Some Type II cations have a name using the “old” system as well as the “new system”. The old system, still widely used, adds to the root or stem of the Latin name of the metal the suffixes –ous and –ic. These represent the lower and higher charges respectively.
Examples of Older Names of Cations formed from Transition Metals (you do not have to memorize these)
Learning Check Complete the names of the following binary compounds with variable metal ions: FeBr 2 CuCl SnBr 4 Fe 2 O 3 Hg 2 S
Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds from Names Formulas of ionic compounds are determined from the charges on the ions Na + F Na + + F - NaF Sodium atom + fluoride ion sodium fluoride Charge balance: 1+ + 1- = 0
Neutral, you say? Formulas are written to make the compound have a _____________________________. You do NOT write the charges in the formula because they MUST cross out to accurately represent the compound. Ex: NaF 2 is INCORRECT for sodium chloride because_______________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________
Writing the formula… Write the formula for the barium chloride, the compound that will form between Ba 2+ and Cl . Solution: 1. Write the ___________, and then the ___________. 2. Balance charge with the number of + and – ions 3. Write the number of ions needed ____________ __________________________:
So what if the oxidation numbers aren’t even? If the oxidation numbers or charges do not balance, you can write the number of ions of each until you get the same number of each charge in total. Yes. The “___________ ____________” _________. You take the ______ __________from the _________, and you make it the number of _________ (subscript), and take the charge on the anion, and you make that many cations (subscript). Is there an easier way?
Criss-Crossing in action: Example: Lead (II) nitrate Pb 2+ N 3- *the charges do not balance Pb 2+ N 3- Pb 3 N 2 The 2 and the 3 are brought down to the opposite element, so that there are now ___________ ions and ___________ions This means there were _____ transferred from the lead atoms to the nitrogen atoms; the compound is neutral
Learning Check Write the correct formula for the compounds containing the following ions: 1. Na + and S 2- a) NaS b) Na 2 Sc) NaS 2 2. Al 3+ and Cl - a) AlCl 3 b) AlCl c) Al 3 Cl 3. Mg 2+ and N 3- a) MgN b) Mg 2 N 3 c) Mg 3 N 2
Ternary Ionic Compounds: Contain at least 3 elements There MUST be at least one polyatomic ion (it helps to ______________) Examples: NaNO 3____________________________ K 2 SO 4_____________________________ Al(HCO 3 ) 3 ______________________________
Specifics for ternary ionic compounds 1.Name the cation first, then polyatomic ion 2.For NaNO 3, the monatomic cation is Na +, sodium, and the polyatomic anion is NO 3 , named nitrate. – NaNO 3 is sodium nitrate 3. For Co(NO 3 ) 2, the monatomic cation is Co +2, cobalt (II) and the polyatomic anion is NO 3 , named nitrate. – Co(NO 3 ) 2 is cobalt (II) nitrate Examples: Examples: NaNO 3, and Co(NO 3 ) 2
Learning Check Match each set with the correct name: 1. Na 2 CO 3 a) magnesium sulfite MgSO 3 b) magnesium sulfate MgSO 4 c) sodium carbonate 2.Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 a) calcium carbonate CaCO 3 b) calcium phosphate Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 c) calcium bicarbonate
Writing Formulas for Ternary Ionic Compounds Write the _______ first, then the _____________. Overall charge must equal ____________. Overall charge must equal ____________. – If charges cancel – If charges cancel, just write symbols. – If not, use ________________ to balance charges. Use parentheses to ____________________________ _________________________________________ _____. Use ______________________ to indicate the ion’s charge when needed (transition metals) Remember that the final formula should ________ __________________________written in.
Writing Formulas, cont’d Example: Cr 2+ PO 4 3-* the charges do not balance Cr 2+ PO 4 3- ______________ The polyatomic ions is in parentheses _____________________ ________________________________. This is so that we know to count a number of those groups!
Learning Check 1. aluminum nitrate a) AlNO 3 b) Al(NO) 3 c) Al(NO 3 ) 3 2. copper(II) nitrate a) CuNO 3 b) Cu(NO 3 ) 2 c) Cu 2 (NO 3 ) 3. Iron (III) hydroxide a) FeOHb) Fe 3 OHc) Fe(OH) 3 4. Tin(IV) hydroxide a) Sn(OH) 4 b) Sn(OH) 2 c) Sn 4 (OH)
Ternary Ionic Nomenclature: You Criss-cross these, too. Sodium Sulfate Iron (III) hydroxide Ammonium carbonate
Write the Formula: Copper (II) chlorate Calcium nitride Aluminum carbonate Potassium bromide Barium fluoride Cesium hydroxide
General naming rules for covalent (molecular) compounds Names are _______________, __________________. – Prefixes tell you________________________. First element whole name with the appropriate prefix – ***NEVER use ______ for the first element! For the second element, use the _________ _____________ and the -ide ending with appropriate prefix for that many.
never You NEVER. Since you are sharing electrons, rather than giving them away/ picking them up, the charges _______________ ________________.
Specifics for binary covalent compounds 1.Name the first element, using a prefix if there is more than one atom of the element present 2.Name the second element, using the appropriate prefix in all cases 3. CO 2 is carbon dioxide because there is one carbon (no prefix when there is only one atom of the element,) and two oxygens (di- prefix) Example: Example: CO 2 is carbon dioxide
Learning Check 1.P 2 O 5 a) phosphorus oxide b) phosphorus pentoxide c) diphosphorus pentoxide 2.Cl 2 O 7 a) dichlorine heptoxide b) dichlorine oxide c) chlorine heptoxide 3. Cl 2 a) chlorine b) dichlorine c) dichloride
Learning Check Give the names of following covalent compounds: CO CO 2 PCl 3 CCl 4 N 2 O
Hydrates: Ionic Compounds·Water Some salts trap water crystals when they form crystals. – Ex: CuSO 4 · ___H 2 O These are ______________. Both the name and the formula needs to indicate _____________________________. In the name we add the word hydrate with a prefix that tells us how many water molecules. ____________________________________
Hydrates In the formula ________________________ ____________________________________. _____________________________________
Acid Nomenclature Acids – Compounds that _________________________________ – Formulas usually_________________________________ – In order to be an acid instead of a gaseous covalent compound, it ___________________________________ Meaning dissolved in water; symbolized by _______ – Ternary acids are ALL aqueous – Two types: ____________________
Naming acids: Non-oxy acids If the acid ________________________ add the prefix ____________- change the suffix -________________ HCl_______________________ H 2 S _______________________ HCN _______________________
Naming acids: Oxyacids If the formula has oxygen in it write the name of the ___________, but change: _____________________________ Watch out for sulfuric and sulfurous! H 2 CrO 4 HMnO 4 HNO 2 ____________________ ___________________
Specifics: Acid Nomenclature Binary Ternary An easy way to remember which goes with which… “In the cafeteria, you ATE something ICky”
HBr (aq) H 2 CO 3 (aq) H 2 CO 2 (aq) Acid Nomenclature
AcidName HNO 3 HNO 2 H 2 SO 4 H 2 SO 3 H 3 PO 4 HC 2 H 3 O 2
Name ‘Em! HI (aq) HCl (aq) H 2 SO 3 (aq) HMnO 4 (aq) HIO 4 (aq)
Formulas of Acids Backwards from names. If it has hydro- in the name: – _____________________________ – Anion ends in ____________ No hydro, anion ends in ____________ – Write anion and add ________________ ______________________
Common Names A lot of chemicals have common names as well as the proper IUPAC name. Chemicals that should always be named by common name and never named by the IUPAC method are: – H 2 O_________________________ _______________________________ ___ – NH 3 _____________________________ _______________________________ ___
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