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Chemical Names and Formulas Overview Metals and Non-Metals Ions and Ionic Charges Types of Compounds Systematic Names -Writing Names and Formulas.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemical Names and Formulas Overview Metals and Non-Metals Ions and Ionic Charges Types of Compounds Systematic Names -Writing Names and Formulas."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemical Names and Formulas Overview Metals and Non-Metals Ions and Ionic Charges Types of Compounds Systematic Names -Writing Names and Formulas

2 Nomenclature PO 4 3- phosphate ion C 2 H 3 O 2 - acetate ion HC 2 H 3 O 2 Acetic Acid

3 Metals and Nonmetals Stairway Of Division on Periodic Table Stairway Of Division on Periodic Table C, P, Se, I, Rn and to the right are non- metals C, P, Se, I, Rn and to the right are non- metals B, Si, As, Ge, Sb, Te, Po, At are semi- metals B, Si, As, Ge, Sb, Te, Po, At are semi- metals All others are metals All others are metals

4 Ions Cations Positively Charged Atoms Cations Positively Charged Atoms i.e.Na + i.e.Na + Anions Negatively Charged Atoms Anions Negatively Charged Atoms i.e.Cl - i.e.Cl -

5 Properties of Ionic Compounds Forming NaCl from Na and Cl 2 A metal atom can transfer an electron to a nonmetal. A metal atom can transfer an electron to a nonmetal. The resulting cation and anion are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces. The resulting cation and anion are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces.

6 IONIC CHARGES Group I -> Group I -> Group II -> Group II -> Group III -> Group III -> Group IV -> Group IV ->

7 IONIC CHARGES Group V -> Group V -> Group VI -> Group VI -> Group VII -> Group VII -> Group VIII -> Group VIII -> Noble Gases

8 Predicting Charges on Monatomic Ions KNOW THESE !!!! Cd

9 Forms of Chemical Bonds There are 3 forms bonding atoms: There are 3 forms bonding atoms: Ionic—complete transfer of 1 or more electrons Ionic—complete transfer of 1 or more electrons Covalent—sharing of one or more valence electrons Covalent—sharing of one or more valence electrons _________ – holds atoms of a metal together _________ – holds atoms of a metal together Most bonds are somewhere in between ionic and covalent.

10 TYPES OF COMPOUNDS Ionic Compounds Ionic Compounds usually formed from a metal and non-metal. usually formed from a metal and non-metal. these elements are not attached these elements are not attached to one another.

11 Formulas of Ionic Compounds Formulas of ionic compounds are determined from the charges on the ions atoms ions atoms ions     _     _ Na  +  F :  Na + : F :  NaF         sodium + fluorine sodium fluoride formula Charge balance: = 0 Charge balance: = 0

12 TYPES OF COMPOUNDS Ionic Compounds con’t Ionic Compounds con’t Examples ExamplesNaCl CaBr 2 KI

13 CHEMICAL FORMULAS Definition Definition shows the kind and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit of the substance. shows the kind and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit of the substance. i. e. i. e. NaCl NaCl

14 IONIC COMPOUNDS A formula unit is the lowest whole number ratio of ions in an ionic compound. A formula unit is the lowest whole number ratio of ions in an ionic compound. i.e. Na 2 Cl 2 -> NaCl i.e. Na 2 Cl 2 -> NaCl There is no such thing as a molecule of NaCl!!!!!!!!! There is no such thing as a molecule of NaCl!!!!!!!!!

15 NAMING COMPOUNDS Your ability to name compounds and write formula’s hinges on your ability to recognize whether a compound is Ionic or Molecular. Your ability to name compounds and write formula’s hinges on your ability to recognize whether a compound is Ionic or Molecular.

16 BINARY IONIC COMPOUNDS Binary means 2 elements Binary means 2 elements Ionic means a metal and a non- metal (or cation and anion) Ionic means a metal and a non- metal (or cation and anion) Writing Formulas Writing Formulas charges must balance so charges must balance so compound charge is neutral. compound charge is neutral.

17 CATION + ANION ---> COMPOUND COMPOUND CATION + ANION ---> COMPOUND COMPOUND A neutral compound requires equal number of + equal number of + and - charges. A neutral compound requires equal number of + equal number of + and - charges. COMPOUNDS FORMED FROM IONS Na + + Cl - --> NaCl

18 BINARY IONIC COMPOUNDS Writing Formulas from Names Writing Formulas from Names 1st word = CATION 1st word = CATION 2nd word = ANION name 2nd word = ANION name with ide ending.

19 BINARY IONIC COMPOUNDS Potassium Chloride Potassium Chloride Aluminum Oxide Aluminum Oxide notice ending of name is ide! notice ending of name is ide! K + Cl - -> KCl Al 2 3+ O > Al 2 O 3

20 Polyatomic Ions Definitiontightly bound groups of atoms that behave as a unit and carry a charge. Definitiontightly bound groups of atoms that behave as a unit and carry a charge. Example SO 3 2-, NO 2 -, ClO 2 - Example SO 3 2-, NO 2 -, ClO 2 -

21 TERTIARY IONIC COMPOUNDS Tertiary means 3 different elements Tertiary means 3 different elements Usually contain Poly-atomic Ions Usually contain Poly-atomic Ions Ionic means cation and anion Ionic means cation and anion

22 TERTIARY IONIC COMPOUNDS:Writing Formulas Ca 2+ CO > Ca 2+ CO > CaCO 3 Calcium Carbonate Calcium Carbonate

23 TERTIARY IONIC COMPOUNDS: Naming Calcium Nitrate Calcium Nitrate Ca(NO 3 ) 2 Ca(NO 3 ) 2

24 24 Transition Metals: Metals that form more than One Cation The name of metals with two or more positive ions (cations) use a Roman numeral to identify ionic charge. Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lead Pb 2+ lead(II) Pb 4+ lead(IV)

25 Naming with Transition Metals First word = CATION First word = CATION Second word = ANION Second word = ANION Pay attention to subscript on anion to determine oxidation state (Roman Numeral in parentheses) of Transition Metals Pay attention to subscript on anion to determine oxidation state (Roman Numeral in parentheses) of Transition Metals

26 Common Transition Metals with more than one Oxidation State Copper Copper Tin Tin Lead Lead Iron Iron Cobalt Cobalt Manganese Manganese Mercury Mercury Nickel Nickel

27 27 Naming Ionic Compounds with Variable Charge Metals Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings

28

29 29 Naming FeCl 2 To name FeCl 2 1. Determine the charge of the cation using the charge of the anion (Cl - ). of the anion (Cl - ). Fe ion + 2 Cl - = Fe ion + 2- = 0 Fe ion = Name the cation by the element name and add a Roman numeral in parenthesis to show its charge. Roman numeral in parenthesis to show its charge. Fe 2+ = iron(II) 3. Write the anion with an ide ending. FeCl 2 = iron(II) chloride FeCl 2 = iron(II) chloride

30 Naming Transition Metals Copper (I) Oxide Copper (I) Oxide Cu 2 O Cu 2 O

31 Writing Formulas with Transition Metals FeCl 3 FeCl 3 FeCl 2 FeCl 2 Iron (III) Chloride Iron (III) Chloride Iron (II) Chloride Iron (II) Chloride

32 32 Learning Check Select the correct name for each. A. Fe 2 S 3 1) iron sulfide 1) iron sulfide 2) iron(II) sulfide 2) iron(II) sulfide 3) iron(III) sulfide 3) iron(III) sulfide B. CuO 1) copper oxide 1) copper oxide 2) copper(I) oxide 2) copper(I) oxide 3) copper(II) oxide 3) copper(II) oxide

33 33 Solution Select the correct name for each. A. Fe 2 S 3 3) iron (III) sulfide Fe 3+ S 2- 3) iron (III) sulfide Fe 3+ S 2- B. CuO 3) copper (II) oxide Cu 2+ O 2- 3) copper (II) oxide Cu 2+ O 2-

34 TYPES OF COMPOUNDS Molecular Compounds- Formed by Covalent Bonds Molecular Compounds- Formed by Covalent Bonds composed of molecules in which elements share electrons. composed of molecules in which elements share electrons. usually composed of 2 nonmetals. usually composed of 2 nonmetals. these elements are attached these elements are attached

35 MOLECULAR FORMULA Definition Definition shows the numbers and shows the numbers and kinds of atoms present in a kinds of atoms present in a molecule of a compound. molecule of a compound. i. e. i. e. CO CO

36 TYPES OF COMPOUNDS Molecular Compounds con’t Molecular Compounds con’t ExamplesExamples CS 2 SiO 2 BF 3

37 BINARY MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS Binary means 2 elements Binary means 2 elements Molecular means 2 non- metals Molecular means 2 non- metals NO ionic charges are present NO ionic charges are present

38 Naming Binary Molecular Compounds Prefixes are used to show how many atoms are present in each molecule. Prefixes are used to show how many atoms are present in each molecule. Mono (1), di (2), tri (3), tetra (4), penta (5), hexa (6), hepta (7), octa (8), nona (9), deca (10) Mono (1), di (2), tri (3), tetra (4), penta (5), hexa (6), hepta (7), octa (8), nona (9), deca (10)

39 Writing Binary Molecular Compounds CO 2 no mono prefix is used on first element CO 2 no mono prefix is used on first element Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide Di means 2 oxygens!! Di means 2 oxygens!!

40 Naming Binary Molecular Compounds 2 ways it’s done! 2 ways it’s done! (prefix + element name) (prefix + element name) i.e. N 2 O dinitrogen monoxide

41 Naming Binary Molecular Compounds (prefix + element root + ide) (prefix + element root + ide) i.e.PCl 3 Phosphorous Trichloride All binary compounds end in ide!!! All binary compounds end in ide!!!


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