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Chemical Bonding. What is Chemical Bonding? Chemical Bonding is two or more atoms combining by sharing electrons so that a new substance is produced that.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemical Bonding. What is Chemical Bonding? Chemical Bonding is two or more atoms combining by sharing electrons so that a new substance is produced that."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemical Bonding

2 What is Chemical Bonding? Chemical Bonding is two or more atoms combining by sharing electrons so that a new substance is produced that has different physical and chemical properties than its component elements Chemical bonding occurs when atoms share valence electrons Atoms want to share electrons so that their valence shells are full and they are chemically stable -- for most elements, this means having 8 valence electrons -- for hydrogen, helium, lithium, and beryllium (who can have a full 1 st energy level), this means having 2 valence electrons

3 Lewis Structures Other than the Bohr Model, there is a much simpler way that we can show the valence electrons of an atom... This is known as either an electron-dot diagram or, more scientifically, a Lewis Structure When drawing a Lewis Structure, you place the atomic symbol at the center and put dots around the symbol to indicate the valence electrons. -- DO NOT pair electrons until all four sides have at least one electron Examples: CNaF

4 The Octet Rule Atoms themselves can gain or lose electrons so that they have a full valence shell of 8 (or 2) electrons when atoms gain or lose electrons, they are called ions Depending on whether or not the atom gains or loses an electron, it can be positively-charged (cation) or negatively- charged (anion) This need to be stable and have 8 electrons is called the octet rule In addition to forming ions, atoms can also “share” their valence electrons with other atoms, giving each atom 8 valence electrons

5 Types of Chemical Bonding There are two ways in which atoms can share electrons to satisfy the octet rule: Ionic Bonding – occurs when two or more ions combine to form an electrically-neutral compound -- the positive cation “loses” an electron (or 2 or 3) -- the negative anion “gains” the electron (or 2 or 3) -- the electrons ARE NOT shared between the two atoms, as the anion steals the electrons from the cation Covalent Bonding – occurs when two or more atoms combine to form an electrically-neutral compound -- the electrons are shared between the two atoms -- neither atom had a charge to begin with, and the compound remains with zero charge

6 Ionic Bonding Ionic bonding is the combining of two or more ions to form an electrically-neutral compound How Ionic Bonding Works 1)The giving atom loses a valence electron (or 2 or 3) so that it has a full valence shell, but a positive charge 2) The gaining atom gains a valence electron (or 2 or 3) so that it has a full valence shell, but a negative charge 3) The negative and positively-charged ions are attracted to each other (like a magnet) based on their opposite charge If you look at your periodic table, you will see that ionic bonding usually occurs in compounds formed between one metal and one nonmetal

7 Metals in Ionic Bonds In ionic bonds, metals are always the cation -- metals are on the left side of the periodic table and only have 1, 2, or 3 valence electrons -- it is very easy to lose these electrons and become positively charged

8 Nonmetals in Ionic Bonds Nonmetals (with the exception of hydrogen) are always the anion in ionic bonds -- nonmetals all have 4 or more valence electrons, so it is very easy for them to gain electrons to get a full valence shell -- when nonmetals gain electrons, they get a negative charge

9 Drawing Ionic Bonds When a nonmetal is exposed to a metal, the metal will lose electrons and the nonmetal will gain electrons, forming a new compound -- that new compound is held together by an ionic bond The individual atoms will have a charge, but the overall compound will be neutral When we draw the compound, using Lewis Structures, we show the extra electron around the anion and the cation as having no valence electrons -- each ion in the compound is shown as being charged Example: Na + ClNa Cl

10 Diagram of Ionic Bonding

11 Polyatomic Ions There are some ions that are made up of more than one type of atom, these are called polyatomic ions For example, the polyatomic ion known as ammonium NH 4 + has 4 atoms of hydrogen and one atom of nitrogen, HOWEVER, the whole ion has an overall charge of you will be given the charges of any polyatomic ions

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13 Naming Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds all have two-word names The first word in the name is the same as the name of the first ion (for example, sodium, ammonium, potassium, etc) The second word in the name is either: 1. If the second ion is polyatomic, it is just the name of the polyatomic ion 2. If the second ion is an element, the end of the element’s name changes to –ide Example: chlorine  chloride oxygen  oxide

14 Practice Naming Ionic Compounds Na 2 CO 3 -- CaSO 4 -- KBr -- MgS -- BeCl 2 -- NH 4 F --

15 Writing Ionic Compounds From Name If I have an ionic compound, for example, potassium sulfate, how do I know what the formula is? REMEMBER THAT THE COMPOUND MUST BE NEUTRAL So, I have Potassium, K, which will lose 1 electron and gain a positive charge, making it K + And, I have Sulfate, a polyatomic ion, which has a charge of -2 Therefore, I need 2 potassium ions to balance out my one sulfate ion, making my formula, K 2 SO 4 -- this is why we have subscripts in chemistry

16 What About... What if I have to put multiple polyatomic ions in a compound, for example, magnesium nitrate? Magnesium has a charge of +2 Nitrate is polyatomic and has a charge of -1 Therefore, we need 2 nitrate ions for each magnesium In this case, we put the entire polyatomic ion in parenthesis and put the subscript outside the parenthesis Our answer would be Mg(NO 3 ) 2

17 Properties of Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds have the following properties: Crystal Pattern – every ion is attracted to all other ions with the opposite charge -- this results in a repeating 3-dimensional crystal pattern

18 Properties of Ionic Compounds cont’d High Melting Point – the attraction in the crystal pattern leads to very strong bonds, making it hard to break apart ionic compounds -- ionic compounds melt at high temperatures Conductivity – when dissolved in water, ionic compounds conduct electricity -- in water, the bonds dissociate (fall apart), leaving lots of ions to carry charge Solid ionic compounds do not conduct electricity very well -- melted ionic compounds do conduct electricity fairly well


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