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6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas What information do the name and formula of an ionic compound provide? Describing Ionic Compounds The name of.

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Presentation on theme: "6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas What information do the name and formula of an ionic compound provide? Describing Ionic Compounds The name of."— Presentation transcript:

1 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas What information do the name and formula of an ionic compound provide? Describing Ionic Compounds The name of an ionic compound must distinguish the compound from other ionic compounds containing the same elements. The formula of an ionic compound describes the ratio of the ions in the compound.

2 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas Binary Ionic Compounds A compound made from only two elements is a binary compound. Naming binary ionic compounds, such as sodium chloride and cadmium iodide, is easy. The names have a predictable pattern: the name of the cation (+) followed by the name of the anion (-). Describing Ionic Compounds

3 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas This table lists eight common anions. The name of an anion is formed by adding the suffix –ide to the stem of the name of the nonmetal. Describing Ionic Compounds

4 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas Metals With Multiple Ions Many transition metals form more than one type of ion. Many paint pigments contain compounds of transition metals. Describing Ionic Compounds

5 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas The table shows a copper(I) ion with a 1+ charge and a copper(II) ion with a 2+ charge. These ion names can distinguish red copper(I) oxide from black copper(II) oxide. The formula for “copper one oxide” is Cu 2 O because it takes two Cu 1+ ions to balance the charge on an O 2– ion. The formula for “copper two oxide” is CuO because it takes only one Cu 2+ ion to balance the charge on an O 2– ion. Describing Ionic Compounds

6 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas Polyatomic Ions This electron dot diagram models a group of atoms that includes one nitrogen atom and four hydrogen atoms. The ammonium ion loses a valence electron as it forms. This loss leaves only 10 electrons to balance the charge on 11 protons, so the ion has a positive charge. Describing Ionic Compounds

7 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas A covalently bonded group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge and acts as a unit is a polyatomic ion. Most simple polyatomic ions are anions. Describing Ionic Compounds

8 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds Use the name of an ionic compound to write its formula. The symbol of the cation is first, followed by the symbol of the anion. Use subscripts to show the ratio of the ions in the compound. Parentheses are used with the subscript for polyatomic ions. The formula for iron(III) hydroxide is Fe(OH) 3. Describing Ionic Compounds

9 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas Because all compounds are neutral, the total charges on the cations and anions must add up to zero. Suppose an atom that gains two electrons, such as sulfur, reacts with an atom that loses one electron, such as sodium. There must be two sodium ions (Na + ) for each sulfide ion (S 2– ). The formula for sodium sulfide is Na 2 S. The 2– charge on one sulfide ion is balanced by the 1+ charges on two sodium ions. Describing Ionic Compounds

10 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas Plan and Solve List the symbols and charges for the cation and anion. Ca with a charge of 2+ and Cl with a charge of 1– Determine the ratio of ions in the compound. It takes two 1– charges to balance the 2+ charge. There will be two chloride ions for each calcium ion. Write the formula for calcium chloride. Describing Ionic Compounds

11 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas Plan and Solve List the symbols and charges for the cation and anion. Ca with a charge of 2+ and Cl with a charge of 1– Determine the ratio of ions in the compound. It takes two 1– charges to balance the 2+ charge. There will be two chloride ions for each calcium ion. Write the formula for calcium chloride. CaCl 2 Describing Ionic Compounds

12 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas Look Back and Check Is your answer reasonable? Describing Ionic Compounds

13 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas Look Back and Check Is your answer reasonable? Each calcium atom loses two electrons, and each chlorine atom gains one electron. So there should be a 1-to-2 ratio of calcium ions to chloride ions. Describing Ionic Compounds

14 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas 1. Write the formula for the compound calcium oxide. Describing Ionic Compounds

15 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas 1. Write the formula for the compound calcium oxide. Answer: It takes one calcium ion with a charge of 2+ to balance one oxide ion with a charge of 2–. The formula is CaO. Describing Ionic Compounds

16 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas 2. Write the formula for the compound copper(I) sulfide. Describing Ionic Compounds

17 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas 2. Write the formula for the compound copper(I) sulfide. Answer: It takes two copper (I) ions, each with a charge of 1+, to balance one sulfide ion with a charge of 2–. The formula is Cu 2 S. Describing Ionic Compounds

18 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas 3. Write the formula for the compound sodium sulfate. Describing Ionic Compounds

19 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas 3. Write the formula for the compound sodium sulfate. Answer: It takes two sodium ions, each with a charge of 1+, to balance one sulfate ion with a charge of 2–. The formula is Na 2 SO 4. Describing Ionic Compounds

20 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas 4. What is the name of the compound whose formula is NaOH? Describing Ionic Compounds

21 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas 4. What is the name of the compound whose formula is NaOH? Answer: In the formula, Na represents the sodium ion, and OH represents the hydroxide ion. The name of the compound is sodium hydroxide. Describing Ionic Compounds

22 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas What information do the name and formula of a molecular compound provide? Describing Molecular Compounds The name and formula of a molecular compound describe the type and number of atoms in a molecule of the compound.

23 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas Naming Molecular Compounds The general rule is that the most metallic element appears first in the name. These elements are farther to the left in the periodic table. If both elements are in the same group, the more metallic element is closer to the bottom of the group. The name of the second element is changed to end in the suffix -ide, as in carbon dioxide. Describing Molecular Compounds

24 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas There may be more than one molecular compound that can exist with the same two elements. The Greek prefixes in the table are used to name molecular compounds. The prefix octa-means “eight,” as in the eight tentacles of an octopus. Describing Molecular Compounds

25 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas Two compounds that contain nitrogen and oxygen have the formulas N 2 O 4 and NO 2. The name of the compound with the formula N 2 O 4 is dinitrogen tetraoxide. The name for the compound with the formula NO 2 is mononitrogen dioxide. The prefix mono- often is not used for the first element in the name, so a more common name is nitrogen dioxide. Describing Molecular Compounds

26 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas Writing Molecular Formulas To write the formula for a molecular compound, write the symbols for the elements in the order the elements appear in the name. The prefixes indicate the number of atoms of each element in the molecule. The prefixes appear as subscripts in the formulas. If there is no prefix for an element in the name, there is only one atom of that element in the molecule. Describing Molecular Compounds

27 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas What is the formula for diphosphorus tetrafluoride? Describing Molecular Compounds

28 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas What is the formula for diphosphorus tetrafluoride? Because the compound is molecular, look for elements on the right side of the periodic table. Describing Molecular Compounds

29 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas What is the formula for diphosphorus tetrafluoride? Because the compound is molecular, look for elements on the right side of the periodic table. Phosphorus has the symbol P. Fluorine has the symbol F. Describing Molecular Compounds

30 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas What is the formula for diphosphorus tetrafluoride? Because the compound is molecular, look for elements on the right side of the periodic table. Phosphorus has the symbol P. Fluorine has the symbol F. Di- indicates two phosphorus atoms, and tetra- indicates four fluorine atoms. Describing Molecular Compounds

31 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas What is the formula for diphosphorus tetrafluoride? Because the compound is molecular, look for elements on the right side of the periodic table. Phosphorus has the symbol P. Fluorine has the symbol F. Di- indicates two phosphorus atoms, and tetra- indicates four fluorine atoms. The formula for the compound is P 2 F 4. Describing Molecular Compounds

32 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas Assessment Questions 1.Which of these formulas describes a binary ionic compound? a.O 2 b.MgCl 2 c.NO 2 d.Fe(OH) 3

33 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas Assessment Questions 1.Which of these formulas describes a binary ionic compound? a.O 2 b.MgCl 2 c.NO 2 d.Fe(OH) 3 ANS:B

34 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas Assessment Questions 2.What is the correct name for CCl 4 ? a.carbon(IV) chloride b.carbon tetrachlorine c.carbon tetrachloride d.monocarbon tetrachloride

35 6.3 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas Assessment Questions 2.What is the correct name for CCl 4 ? a.carbon(IV) chloride b.carbon tetrachlorine c.carbon tetrachloride d.monocarbon tetrachloride ANS:C


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