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Ionic Bonding. Electron Configuration  An elements ability to bond depends on its electron configuration.  Specifically, the outermost electrons determine.

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Presentation on theme: "Ionic Bonding. Electron Configuration  An elements ability to bond depends on its electron configuration.  Specifically, the outermost electrons determine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ionic Bonding

2 Electron Configuration  An elements ability to bond depends on its electron configuration.  Specifically, the outermost electrons determine if an atom will react

3 iClicker Question  What is the name of the electrons on the highest energy level. A. Ground State Electrons B. Valence Electrons C. Ionized Electrons D. Active Electrons E. Transfer Electrons

4 Electron Configuration  When the highest energy level of an atom is completely filled with electrons, the element is stable and will not react.

5 iClicker Question  Which group on the periodic table has filled outer shells and will not react. A. Alkali Metals B. Alkali Earth Metals C. Transition Metals D. Halogens E. Noble Gases

6 Electron Dot Diagrams  An electron dot diagram is a model in which each dot represents a valence electron.  The number of valence electrons an element has depends on what group it’s in.

7 Electron Dot Diagrams HCAr FAlCl

8

9 iClicker Question  How many valence electrons does Chlorine have? A. 1 B. 2 C. 7 D. 8 E. 17

10 Electron Dot Diagrams

11 Ionic Bonding  Some elements which do not have a stable outer shell will try to get it by transferring electrons.  An element can achieve that by either gaining or losing electrons.

12 iClicker Question  When an atom gets rid of 2 electrons, what is its charge? A. -2 B. -1 C. 0 D. +1 E. +2

13 Formation of Ions  When an atom gains or loses an electron, the number of protons is no longer equal to the number of electrons.  The charge on the atom is not balanced and it is no longer neutral.  An atom that has a positive or negative charge is called an ion.

14 Ions  The charge on an ion is represented by a plus or minus sign next to the elements symbol. Na +

15 iClicker Question  What ion does magnesium form? A. Mg +2 B. Mg +1 C. Mg D. Mg -1 E. Mg -2

16 Anion & Cation  An ion which has a negative charge is called an Anion  An ion which has a positive charge is called a Cation

17 iClicker Question  Calcium has lost 2 electrons! Which of the following correctly describes the ion created: A. Anion, -2 B. Anion, -1 C. Cation, +2 D. Cation, +1 E. Cation, -2

18 Ionic Bonding  Negative and positives are attracted to each other.  An anion and a cation will attract each other and form a bond.  When two ions form a bond, its called an ionic bond.

19 Ionic Bond Sodium wants to get rid of an electron… Na Chlorine wants to get an electron… Cl +1 Positive Na is attracted to negative Cl…

20 Ionic Compound  A chemical formula shows the ratio of one element to another in a compound.  Element will bond with other elements so they can have a stable electron configuration (full shell).

21 Ionic Compound  Magnesium has 2 valence electrons  Chlorine has 7 valence electrons  Magnesium cannot be stable by reacting with just 1 chlorine. It must donate 2 electrons and chlorine can only accept 1.  Another Chlorine must be present to accept the electron and make a bond.

22 Ionization Energy  Ionization Energy is the energy required to remove an electron from an atom.

23

24 Covalent Bonding

25 iClicker Question  What ion does Oxygen form? A. -2 B. -1 C. 0 D. +1 E. +2

26 iClicker Question  What is the ionic formula for a bond between Calcium and Fluorine?  CaF  CaF 2  Ca 2 F  Ca 2 F 2  Calcium and Fluorine do not bond.

27 Covalent Bonding  In a covalent bond, electrons are shared.  A molecule is a group of atoms that are joined together by covalent bonds.

28 Bonds  If only a single pair of electrons are shared between elements, that is a Single Covalent Bond  If more than one pair of electrons is shared, a covalent bond may be a double or triple bond.

29 iClicker Questions  Which of the following could make a multiple bond? A. Chlorine B. Fluorine C. Oxygen D. Bromine E. They could all make multiple bonds.

30 iClicker Question  Atoms in covalent bonds are called: A. Compounds B. Molecules C. Polar D. Non-Polar E. Ionic

31 Polar Bonds  A covalent bond in which electrons are not shared equally is called a polar covalent bond.  When a polar bond forms, the element with the larger attraction has a partial negative charge.  The other element in the molecule will have a partial positive charge.

32 Polar Molecules  An entire molecule can be polar if it contains polar bonds or if its shape causes it to be polar.

33 Polar Molecule Attraction  Because polar molecules have a positive and negative end, they tend to have greater attraction to each other.  Like magnets, the positive end of a polar molecule lines up with the negative end of another polar molecule.

34 p. 187 #4-5, 8, 17-19, 27, 34-35

35 Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas

36 iClicker Question  What ion does Oxygen usually form? A. O -1 B. O -2 C. O +1 D. O +2 E. Oxygen doesn’t form an ion

37 iClicker Question  What does the prefix bi mean in the word bicycle? A. One B. Two C. Three D. Four E. None of the above

38 Binary Ionic Compounds  A compound made from two elements is called a binary compound

39 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds  In a binary ionic compound, one element is a metal and one is a non-metal.  When naming a compound, the name of the metal does not change.  When naming a binary ionic compound, the non-metal gets the suffix “-ide”

40 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds  NaCl  The metal is sodium, the non-metal is chlorine.  Sodium Chloride

41 iClicker Question  Name the following compound: KI A. Potassium Iodine B. Potassium Iodide C. Iodine Potassium D. Iodide Potassium E. Iodine Potasside

42 iClicker Question  Name the following compound: Li 2 O A. Lilthium Oxygen B. Bilithium Oxide C. Lithium Oxide D. Lithide Oxide E. Lithide Oxygen

43 Multiple Ions  Some metals have multiple ions, meaning they have more than one ion.  A roman numeral is placed after the name of the metal to tell which ion is being used

44 Metals with Multiple Ions  Copper sometimes makes a +1 ion CuCl - Copper (I) Chloride  But it can also make a +2 ion CuCl 2 - Copper (II) Chloride  The roman numeral tells what ion it is.

45 Polyatomic Ions  An ion which is made up of more than two ions is called a polyatomic ion.  The prefix “poly-” means many  (NH 4 ) +1, (NO 3 ) -1, (OH) -1 are example of polyatomic ions.

46 Writing Formulas  When writing formulas for ionic compounds, the cation always comes first.

47 iClicker Question  What is the correct formula for Calcium Oxide? A. CaO B. Ca 2 O C. CaO 2 D. O 2 Ca E. OCa 2

48 iClicker Question  What is the difference between compounds and molecules? A. Compounds are only ionic bonds B. Compounds do not include ions C. Molecules are made from isotopes D. Molecules are made from compounds E. None of the above are correct

49 Naming Molecular Formulas  A molecule is formed from covalent bonds  To name molecules, use a prefix to describe the number of atoms in them

50 Prefixes Prefixes for Naming Compounds 1mono- 2di- 3tri- 4tetra- 5penta- 6hexa- 7hepta- 8octa- 9nona- 10deca-

51 Naming Molecules  To name molecules, simply put the prefix in front of the element name.  CO 2 – carbon dioxide  N 2 O 4 – dinitrogen tetraoxide  P 3 F 6 – triphosphorus hexafluoride

52 iClicker Question What number does the prefix “penta-” stand for? A. 2 B. 5 C. 7 D. 9 E. 10

53 Writing Molecular Formula  Writing molecular formulas is as easy as reading the prefixes  disulfur monoxide – S 2 O  diphosphorus pentaoxide – P 2 O 5

54 p. 187 #6-7, 20-22, 29, 37


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