11Ionic BondingSome elements which do not have a stable outer shell will try to get it by transferring electrons.An element can achieve that by either gaining or losing electrons.
12iClicker QuestionWhen an atom gets rid of 2 electrons, what is its charge?-2-1+1+2
13Formation of IonsWhen an atom gains or loses an electron, the number of protons is no longer equal to the number of electrons.The charge on the atom is not balanced and it is no longer neutral.An atom that has a positive or negative charge is called an ion.
14IonsThe charge on an ion is represented by a plus or minus sign next to the elements symbol.Na+
15iClicker QuestionWhat ion does magnesium form?Mg+2Mg+1MgMg-1Mg-2
16Anion & Cation An ion which has a negative charge is called an Anion An ion which has a positive charge is called a Cation
17iClicker QuestionCalcium has lost 2 electrons! Which of the following correctly describes the ion created:Anion, -2Anion, -1Cation, +2Cation, +1Cation, -2
18Ionic Bonding Negative and positives are attracted to each other. An anion and a cation will attract each other and form a bond.When two ions form a bond, its called an ionic bond.
19Ionic Bond Na Chlorine wants to get an electron… Cl Sodium wants to get rid of an electron…+1NaChlorine wants to get an electron…-1ClPositive Na is attracted to negative Cl…
20Ionic CompoundA chemical formula shows the ratio of one element to another in a compound.Element will bond with other elements so they can have a stable electron configuration (full shell).
21Ionic Compound Magnesium has 2 valence electrons Chlorine has 7 valence electronsMagnesium cannot be stable by reacting with just 1 chlorine. It must donate 2 electrons and chlorine can only accept 1.Another Chlorine must be present to accept the electron and make a bond.
22Ionization EnergyIonization Energy is the energy required to remove an electron from an atom.
23Homework: p. 187 #1-3, 11-13, 15-16, 26, 30End of Chapter 6.1
25iClicker QuestionWhat ion does Oxygen form?-2-1+1+2
26iClicker QuestionWhat is the ionic formula for a bond between Calcium and Fluorine?CaFCaF2Ca2FCa2F2Calcium and Fluorine do not bond.
27Covalent Bonding In a covalent bond, electrons are shared. A molecule is a group of atoms that are joined together by covalent bonds.
28BondsIf only a single pair of electrons are shared between elements, that is a Single Covalent BondIf more than one pair of electrons is shared, a covalent bond may be a double or triple bond.
29iClicker Questions Which of the following could make a multiple bond? ChlorineFluorineOxygenBromineThey could all make multiple bonds.
30iClicker Question Atoms in covalent bonds are called: Compounds MoleculesPolarNon-PolarIonic
31Polar BondsA covalent bond in which electrons are not shared equally is called a polar covalent bond.When a polar bond forms, the element with the larger attraction has a partial negative charge.The other element in the molecule will have a partial positive charge.
32Polar MoleculesAn entire molecule can be polar if it contains polar bonds or if its shape causes it to be polar.
33Polar Molecule Attraction Because polar molecules have a positive and negative end, they tend to have greater attraction to each other.Like magnets, the positive end of a polar molecule lines up with the negative end of another polar molecule.
35Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas Chapter 6.3
36iClicker Question What ion does Oxygen usually form? O-1 O-2 O+1 O+2 Oxygen doesn’t form an ion
37iClicker Question What does the prefix bi mean in the word bicycle? OneTwoThreeFourNone of the above
38Binary Ionic Compounds A compound made from two elements is called a binary compound
39Naming Binary Ionic Compounds In a binary ionic compound, one element is a metal and one is a non-metal.When naming a compound, the name of the metal does not change.When naming a binary ionic compound, the non-metal gets the suffix “-ide”
40Naming Binary Ionic Compounds NaClThe metal is sodium, the non-metal is chlorine.Sodium Chloride
41iClicker Question Name the following compound: KI Potassium Iodine Potassium IodideIodine PotassiumIodide PotassiumIodine Potasside
42iClicker Question Name the following compound: Li2O Lilthium Oxygen Bilithium OxideLithium OxideLithide OxideLithide Oxygen
43Multiple IonsSome metals have multiple ions, meaning they have more than one ion.A roman numeral is placed after the name of the metal to tell which ion is being used
44Metals with Multiple Ions Copper sometimes makes a +1 ionCuCl - Copper (I) ChlorideBut it can also make a +2 ionCuCl2 - Copper (II) ChlorideThe roman numeral tells what ion it is.
45Polyatomic IonsAn ion which is made up of more than two ions is called a polyatomic ion.The prefix “poly-” means many(NH4)+1, (NO3)-1, (OH)-1 are example of polyatomic ions.
46Writing FormulasWhen writing formulas for ionic compounds, the cation always comes first.
47iClicker Question What is the correct formula for Calcium Oxide? CaO O2CaOCa2
48iClicker QuestionWhat is the difference between compounds and molecules?Compounds are only ionic bondsCompounds do not include ionsMolecules are made from isotopesMolecules are made from compoundsNone of the above are correct
49Naming Molecular Formulas A molecule is formed from covalent bondsTo name molecules, use a prefix to describe the number of atoms in them
50Prefixes for Naming Compounds 1mono-2di-3tri-4tetra-5penta-6hexa-7hepta-8octa-9nona-10deca-
51Naming MoleculesTo name molecules, simply put the prefix in front of the element name.CO2 – carbon dioxideN2O4 – dinitrogen tetraoxideP3F6 – triphosphorus hexafluoride
52iClicker Question What number does the prefix “penta-” stand for? 2 5 7910
53Writing Molecular Formula Writing molecular formulas is as easy as reading the prefixesdisulfur monoxide – S2Odiphosphorus pentaoxide – P2O5