Presentation on theme: "Management of Patients With Gastric and Duodenal Disorders"— Presentation transcript:
1Management of Patients With Gastric and Duodenal Disorders
2Gastritis Inflammation of the stomach A common GI problem Acute: rapid onset of symptoms usually caused by dietary indiscretion. Other causes include medications, alcohol, bile reflux, and radiation therapy. Ingestion of strong acid or alkali may cause serious complications.Chronic: prolonged inflammation due to benign or malignant ulcers of the stomach or by Helicobacter pylori. May also be associated with some autoimmune diseases, dietary factors, medications, alcohol, smoking, or chronic reflux of pancreatic secretions or bile.
4Manifestations of Gastritis Acute: abdominal discomfort, headache, lassitude, nausea, vomiting, hiccuping.Chronic: epigastric discomfort, anorexia, heartburn after eating, belching, sour taste in the mouth, nausea and vomiting, intolerance of some foods. May have vitamin deficiency due to malabsorption of B12.May be associated with achlorhydria, hypochlorhydria, or hyperchloryhydria.Diagnosis is usually by UGI X-ray or endoscopy and biopsy.
5Medical Management of Gastritis AcuteRefrain form alcohol and food until symptoms subsideIf due to strong acid or alkali treatment to neutralize the agent, avoid emetics and lavage due to danger of perforation and damage to esophagusSupportive therapyChronicModify diet, promote rest, reduce stress, avoid alcohol and NSAIDsPharmacologic therapy (See Table 37-1)
6Peptic UlcerErosion of a mucous membrane forms an excavation in the stomach, pylorus, duodenum, or esophagusAssociated with infection of H. pyloriRisk factors include excessive secretion of stomach acid, dietary factors, chronic use of NSAIDs, alcohol, smoking, and familial tendency.Manifestations include a dull gnawing pain or burning in the mid-epigastrium; heartburn and vomiting may occurTreatment includes medications, lifestyle changes, and occasionally surgery (See Tables 37-1 and 37-3)
9Nursing Process: The Care of the Patient with Gastritis—Assessment History including presenting signs and symptomsDietary history and dietary associations with symptoms72 hour diet; diary may be helpfulAbdominal assessment
10Nursing Process: The Care of the Patient with Gastritis—Diagnoses AnxietyImbalanced nutritionRisk for fluid volume imbalanceDeficient knowledgeAcute pain
11Nursing Process: The Care of the Patient with Gastritis—Planning Major goals may include reduced anxiety, avoidance of irritating foods, adequate intake of nutrients, maintenance of fluid balance, increased awareness of dietary management, and relief of pain.
12InterventionsReduce anxiety; use calm approach and explain all procedures and treatments.Promote optimal nutrition; for acute gastritis, the patient should take no food or fluids by mouth. Introduce clear liquids and solid foods as prescribed. Evaluate and report symptoms. Discourage caffeinated beverages, alcohol, cigarette smoking. Refer for alcohol counseling and smoking cessation.Promote fluid balance; monitor I&O, for signs of dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, and hemorrhage.Measures to relieve pain: diet and medications.See Chart 37-1.
13Nursing Process: The Care of the Patient with Peptic Ulcer—Assessment Assess pain and methods used to relieve painDietary intake and 72 hour diet diaryLifestyle and habits such as cigarette and alcohol useMedications; include use of NSAIDsSign and symptoms of anemia or bleedingAbdominal assessment
14Nursing Process: The Care of the Patient with Peptic Ulcer—Diagnoses Acute painAnxietyImbalanced nutritionDeficient knowledge
16Nursing Process: The Care of the Patient with Peptic Ulcer—Planning Major goals for the patient may include relief of pain, reduced anxiety, maintenance of nutritional requirements, knowledge about the management and prevention of ulcer recurrence, and absence of complications.
17Anxiety Assess anxiety Calm manner Explain all procedures and treatmentsHelp identify stressorsExplain various coping and relaxation methods such as biofeedback, hypnosis, and behavior modification
19Management of Potential Complications Management of hemorrhageAssess for evidence of bleeding, hematemesis or melena, and symptoms of shock/impending shock and anemia.Treatment includes IV fluids, NG, and saline or water lavage; oxygen, treatment of potential shock including monitoring of VS and UO; may require endoscopic coagulation or surgical intervention.Pyloric obstructionSymptoms include nausea and vomiting, constipation, epigastric fullness, anorexia, and (later) weight loss.Insert NG tube to decompress the stomach, provide IV fluids and electrolytes. Balloon dilation or surgery may be required.
20Management of Potential Complications Management of perforation or penetrationSigns include severe upper abdominal pain that may be referred to the shoulder, vomiting and collapse, tender board-like abdomen, and symptoms of shock/impending shock.Patient requires immediate surgery.