Peptic Ulcers A peptic ulcer is an open sore in the lining of the stomach or duodenum. Peptic ulcers occur when acids that help you digest food damage the walls of these two body parts. Also, they can less commonly occur in the esophagus.
Etiologies H.pylori The Helicobacter pylori bacteria is a germ that causes infection. The bacteria is suspected to be spread through mouth to mouth contact due to consumption of unclean food and water. Past stuies show that the H.pylori bacteria was found in 80% of patients with gastric and duodenum ulcers.
Etiologies (cont) NSAIDS Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as aspirin and ibuprofen, are a common cause of ulcers. Most common in people who have taken them for a long time.
Symptoms Dull, burning pain in the stomach Can be felt anywhere between the breastbone and bellybutton. Pain can start between meals or at night, can come and go for weeks and last from minutes to several hours.
Symptoms Cont. Seek Immediate Help if: 1. Stool is bloody or black 2. Sudden, sharp pain won’t go away 3. Bloody vomit or vomit that looks like coffee grinds These are signs that the ulcer has broken a blood vessel, perforated a stomach wall/duodenal wall, or stopped the movement of food.
Treatment "Triple Theory" Usually this procedure is effective in one week of treatment 80% of the time. Consists of a 7-day course of treatment involving the use of two antibiotics and a full-dose proton pump inhibitor. (PPI- a medicine that reduces acid production) Emergency surgery for extreme and necessary cases is also a method of treatment.
DIAGNOSIS: To see if H.pylori infection is present, doctors test stool, breath, or blood. They may also look into the stomach by performing an endoscopy (type of x-ray that examines the GI system, tube with light attached to it).
The Processes & Parts of the GI (Digestive) System I ngestion (Mouth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus) The teeth grind up food in the mouth with the help of saliva Saliva is produced by the salivary glands to moisten and break down food and eventually provide lubrication for the pharynx to swallow the food through the esophagus The food consumed travels down until it reaches the stomach
Absorption (Stomach, small intestine, large intestine) The stomach’s lining has millions of gastric glands that secrete gastric juices every time a person eats These juices breakdown the food ion the stomach and pass it along Once the contents in the stomach are liquefied, they travel into the first part of the small intestine (the duodenum)
The duodenum is where most vitamins and minerals are extracted and absorbed The two passages that enter the duodenum are o The one draining the gall bladder and secreting bile (yellow, greenish liquid that helps digest foods) from the liver o The one draining the pancreas
What is it? Chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. NOT the same as ulcerative colitis Usually affects the end of the small intestine and the beginning of the colon, BUT is not solely restricted to those parts. It can affect any part of the digestive tract.
What are the Symptoms? Specific: Persistent Diarrhea Rectal Bleeding Frequent need to move bowels Abdominal cramps/pain Sensation of incomplete evacuation Constipation Mouth ulcers Swollen gums Eye inflammation General: Fever Loss of appetite Weight loss Fatigue Night sweats Loss of menstrual cycle Joint pain
What are some complications? Abscess Bowel obstructions Erythema nodosum Swelling of joints Lesions in eye Nutritional deficiency Pyoderma gangrenosum
How does this happen? Not yet completely understood Hereditary/genetic influence Immune system attacks own healthy tissue Can occur at any age. Most cases are between 15-35 years old Those with Crohn’s are at higher risk for colon cancer
What can be done to treat it? No known cure Healthy diet Fiber supplements NO aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen Biologic therapy: Infliximab and adalimumab used for severe cases Surgery to remove damaged/diseased part(s) of intestines: Ileostomy Small/large bowel resection Total abdominal colectomy Total protocolectomy with ileostomy Total protocolectomy using pull-through technique