9Peptic UlcersA peptic ulcer is an open sore in the lining of the stomach or duodenum.Peptic ulcers occur when acids that help you digest food damage the walls of these two body parts.Also, they can less commonly occur in the esophagus.
13EtiologiesH.pyloriThe Helicobacter pylori bacteria is a germ that causes infection. The bacteria is suspected to be spread through mouth to mouth contact due to consumption of unclean food and water. Past stuies show that the H.pylori bacteria was found in 80% of patients with gastric and duodenum ulcers.
14Etiologies (cont) NSAIDS Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as aspirin and ibuprofen, are a common cause of ulcers.Most common in people who have taken them for a long time.
16Symptoms Dull, burning pain in the stomach Can be felt anywhere between the breastbone and bellybutton.Pain can start between meals or at night, can come and go for weeks and last from minutes to several hours.
17Symptoms Cont. Seek Immediate Help if: 1. Stool is bloody or black Sudden, sharp pain won’t go awayBloody vomit or vomit that looks like coffee grindsThese are signs that the ulcer has broken a blood vessel, perforated a stomach wall/duodenal wall, or stopped the movement of food.
18Treatment "Triple Theory" Usually this procedure is effective in one week of treatment 80% of the time.Consists of a 7-day course of treatment involving the use of two antibiotics and a full-dose proton pump inhibitor. (PPI- a medicine that reduces acid production)Emergency surgery for extreme and necessary cases is also a method of treatment.
19DIAGNOSIS:To see if H.pylori infection is present, doctors test stool, breath, or blood. They may also look into the stomach by performing an endoscopy (type of x-ray that examines the GI system, tube with light attached to it).
21The Processes & Parts of the GI (Digestive) System Ingestion (Mouth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus)The teeth grind up food in the mouth with the help of salivaSaliva is produced by the salivary glands to moisten and break down food and eventually provide lubrication for the pharynx to swallow the food through the esophagusThe food consumed travels down until it reaches the stomach
22Absorption (Stomach, small intestine, large intestine) The stomach’s lining has millions of gastric glands that secrete gastric juices every time a person eatsThese juices breakdown the food ion the stomach and pass it alongOnce the contents in the stomach are liquefied, they travel into the first part of the small intestine (the duodenum)
23The two passages that enter the duodenum are The duodenum is where most vitamins and minerals are extracted and absorbedThe two passages that enter the duodenum areThe one draining the gall bladder and secreting bile (yellow, greenish liquid that helps digest foods) from the liverThe one draining the pancreas
25What is it?Chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract.NOT the same as ulcerative colitisUsually affects the end of the small intestine and the beginning of the colon, BUT is not solely restricted to those parts. It can affect any part of the digestive tract.
26What are the Symptoms? Specific: Persistent Diarrhea Rectal Bleeding Frequent need to move bowelsAbdominal cramps/painSensation of incomplete evacuationConstipationMouth ulcersSwollen gumsEye inflammationGeneral:FeverLoss of appetiteWeight lossFatigueNight sweatsLoss of menstrual cycleJoint pain
27What are some complications? AbscessBowel obstructionsErythema nodosumSwelling of jointsLesions in eyeNutritional deficiencyPyoderma gangrenosum
28How does this happen? Not yet completely understood Hereditary/genetic influenceImmune system attacks own healthy tissueCan occur at any age. Most cases are between years oldThose with Crohn’s are at higher risk for colon cancer
29What can be done to treat it? No known cureHealthy dietFiber supplementsNO aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxenBiologic therapy: Infliximab and adalimumab used for severe casesSurgery to remove damaged/diseased part(s) of intestines:IleostomySmall/large bowel resectionTotal abdominal colectomyTotal protocolectomy with ileostomyTotal protocolectomy using pull-through technique