Presentation on theme: "Insomnia – StatsCan estimates that 3.3 million Canadians have clinically identifiable insomnia – 40% of Canadians display at least one symptom of insomnia,"— Presentation transcript:
Insomnia – StatsCan estimates that 3.3 million Canadians have clinically identifiable insomnia – 40% of Canadians display at least one symptom of insomnia, 13.4% display all symptoms of insomnia. – Insomnia was associated with female sex, older age, and poorer self-rated physical and mental health. – Insomnia is a prevalent condition, age and sex-related, and strongly associated with physical and mental health status – Despite its high prevalence, few people seek treatment. Public Health Agency of Canada, StatsCan
Sleep/insomnia A small number of brain cells are responsible for keeping us awake or asleep—some cells promote wakefulness and others promote sleep. Several areas in the brainstem and hypothalmus promote wakefulness by sending arousal signals to the cerebral cortex the brain’s largest region. Reticular Activating System Raphe Nuclei The raphe nuclei send projections to almost every area of the brain and the main neurotransmitter involved is serotonin. These nuclei are active during wakefulness, and the overall effect is to support wakefulness.
An important projection from the raphe nuclei is the feedback loop between the raphe nuclei and superchiasmatic nuclei, an area where melatonin acts and contributes to circadian rhythms. The SCN will transmit back to the raphe nuclei and alter serotonin levels for sleep/wake cycles.
The master clock of the body that regulates our endogenous 24hour cycle is the SCN. – Highest density of melatonin receptors in brain. Our sleep/wake cycles are highly dependent on melatonin. – Melatonin is at peak levels during the night, and at low concentrations during the day. Night (High Melatonin): Feel Sleepy Daylight (Low Melatonin): Feel Alert Light→Retina →SCN → Spinal Cord → Superior Cervical Ganglia →Pineal Gland →Melatonin Release
Darkness → Pineal gland → Secrete melatonin → Acts on SCN → RAS diminishes activation of cortex → Sleep centers gain predominance When the sun arises, melatonin stops being secreted and the RAS gains the upper hand once again and awakens you.
What happens when you don’t get enough sleep? Daytime drowsiness Microsleeps “Sleep seizures” Mood shifts including depression, irritability Stress, anxiety, inability to cope Lack of interest in socializing with others Weight gain Feelings of being chilled
Reduced immunity to disease and viral infection Feelings of lethargy Reduced productivity Feelings of being chilled Reduced immunity to disease and viral infection Feelings of lethargy Reduced productivity What happens when you don’t get enough sleep?
Great Sleep Strategies Reduce Stress Exercise/stay fit Mental stimulation during the day Proper diet Stop smoking Reduce caffeine intake Avoid alcohol near bedtime Take a warm bath Maintain a relaxation atmosphere Establish a bedtime ritual Have pleasurable sexual activity Avoid an environment of cats and dogs Clear your mind at bedtime Use relaxation techniques Don’t try too hard to sleep Limit your time in bed Value your sleep If necessary, consult a sleep specialist