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© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Consciousness, sleep, and dreaming Psychoactive drugs Meditation and hypnosis
© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Q1Can getting too little sleep increase your risk of getting a cold? Q2Can using a computer or iPad late at night make it harder to fall asleep? Q3Are you addicted to Facebook? Q4Can using marijuana decrease your IQ? Q5Can hypnosis decrease the pain of childbirth? Things You’ll Learn in Chapter 5
CONSCIOUSNESS, SLEEP, AND DREAMING © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Consciousness = awareness of internal events and of the external environment Remember selective attention (Chapter 4)? – Controlling consciousness through deliberate concentration and full concentration Alternate state of consciousness = any mental state different from ordinary waking consciousness – Sleep, dreaming, psychoactive drug use, hypnosis What Is Consciousness? © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Divided attention: texting and driving © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
24-hour biological clock Changes in alertness, body temperature, moods, blood pressure, pulse, and others Peak in the middle of the day; low point at night SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus) perceives darkness, signals pineal gland to release melatonin Circadian Rhythms © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sleep challenges for teenagers Teens experience a natural shift in the timing of circadian rhythms during puberty (Carskadon et al., 1998) Delay in release of melatonin: released around 10pm in adults, but not until 1am in teens! Delaying start of high school by 30 mins leads to improvements in mood, alertness, health (Owens et al., 2010) and decreases in car accidents among teen drivers (Danner & Phillips, 2008) © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. What might this mean for schools?
1 in ________ adults are so sleepy during the day that it interferes with daily activities _______ % of all drivers have fallen asleep a few seconds at the wheel (microsleep) Sleep Deprivation © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Are YOU sleep deprived?
Reduced cognitive and motor performance Irritability and mood alterations Decreased self-esteem Impaired immune system = People sleeping <7 hours/night are 3x more likely to catch a cold than those who sleep 8+ hrs Greater risk of obesity because sleep deprivation interferes with appetite-controlling hormone © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Q1 Can getting too little sleep increase your risk of getting a cold?
90-minute pattern Dreams during REM sleep Stages of Sleep © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Four Sleep Theories 1.Adaptation/protection theory: conserve energy and protect from predators 2.Repair/restoration theory: recuperate from daily activities 3.Growth/development theory: more sleep during stages of brain growth 4.Learning/memory theory: more REM sleep during stages of greatest learning Why Do We Sleep? © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Three Dream Theories 1.Wish-fulfillment = unacceptable desires are normally repressed, but emerge in dreams – Manifest content = story line of the dream – Latent content = what the dream represents 2.Activation-synthesis hypothesis = dreams are the brain’s way of making sense of random electrical stimulation occurring during REM 3.Cognitive view = dreams organize and interpret information from waking experience into memories Why Do We Dream? © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sleep-Wake Disorders © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Exposure to light from electronic displays (iPad or computer) reduces melatonin by 22% Nonprescription sleep aids don’t work; prescription tranquilizers and barbiturates help people sleep, but decrease Stage 4 and REM sleep and can create dependence Some research shows small doses of melatonin help people fall asleep and stay asleep © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Q2 Can using a computer or iPad late at night make it harder to fall asleep?
During the Day Natural sleep aids: Exercise Regular sleep/wake hours Avoid stimulants Avoid late meals and heavy drinking Stop worrying Use presleep rituals Practice yoga In Bed Use progressive relaxation Use fantasies of self in tranquil setting Use deep breathing Warm bath © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Improve your sleep:
Agonist drugs = enhance a particular neurotransmitter Antagonist drugs = inhibit a neurotransmitter Drug abuse = drug taking that causes emotional or physical harm to self or others Addiction = body requires drug to function; the outcome of tolerance and dependence – Psychological dependence – Physical dependence – Withdrawal – Tolerance Psychoactive Drugs © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Feel unreasonably compelled to check FB? “Do you feel an urge to use FB more and more?” “Do you become restless or troubled if prohibited from using FB?” © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Q3 Are you addicted to Facebook?
Four Drug Categories © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Four Drug Categories © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Teenagers who started smoking marijuana before age 18 and were addicted to the drug by age 38 showed decreases in IQ Drops of 8 points for heaviest users © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Q4 Can using marijuana decrease your IQ?
Results of meditation range from mellow relaxation to strong hallucinations Meditation leads to altered states of consciousness because of purposeful changes in prefrontal cortex By focusing on single object, emotion or word, you diminish the number of brain cells that are devoted to multiple tasks; neurons that had been devoted to time now allow you to experience sense of timelessness and mild euphoria Meditation and Hypnosis © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Hypnosis = trance-like state of heightened suggestibility, deep relaxation, focus Medical areas that experience high levels of anxiety (dentistry, childbirth, etc.) use hypnosis to create both lower levels and shorter duration of pain © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Q5 Can hypnosis decrease the pain of childbirth?
© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapter 5 Variations in Consciousness. Table of Contents Consciousness: Personal Awareness Awareness of Internal and External Stimuli –Levels of awareness.
Ch 6 Consciousness. I. Defining Consciousness - the organism ’ s awareness of, or possibility of knowing what is happening inside or outside itself.
States of Consciousness Chapter 7. States of Consciousness Consciousness and Information Processing Sleep and Dreams Biological Rhythms The Rhythm of.
PSYCHOLOGY: CONSCIOUSNESS Subconscious. Consciousness is the awareness of or the possibility of knowing what is happening inside or outside the organism.
Body rhythms and mental states 5. Overview Biological rhythms The rhythms of sleep Exploring the dream world The riddle of hypnosis Consciousness-altering.
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Consciousness: Focus on Awareness. Consciousness Our awareness of our own existence, sensations, and cognitions / Stream of consciousness / What function.
Chapter 7 Altered States of Consciousness. Section 1 - Sleep and Dreams We spend 1/3 of our lives sleeping Sleep is a state of altered consciousness characterized.
Lets take an average of your daily sleep totals Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday & Thursday vs. Friday, Saturday, Sunday How do the numbers compare, differ,
Shift Work Or: What time is it anyway? Warren Silverman MD Medical Director ACCESS HEALTH SYSTEMS.
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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 5 States of Consciousness This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following.
Group Wellness Program 60-DAY. sleep tight Reasons for not getting enough Too much to do Wake in the early hours and cant get back to sleep Second wind.
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The problems with being tired… Sleep deprivation can lead to: chronic tiredness mood changes frustration difficulty controlling emotions inability to.
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