Presentation on theme: "Too Hot to Handle Staying safe in the heat Prepared for Indiana Association of Family Campers and Rvers, 2013."— Presentation transcript:
Too Hot to Handle Staying safe in the heat Prepared for Indiana Association of Family Campers and Rvers, 2013
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Prolonged period of excessive heat, often combined with excessive humidity. Generally you KNOW when it’s hot. Here are some terms that indicate that it is TOO hot!
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Heat Index How hot it feels when relative humidity is added to the air temperature. Exposure to full sunshine can increase the heat index by 15 degrees.
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Excessive Heat Watch Conditions are favorable for an excessive heat event in the next 24 to 72 hours. Excessive Heat Warning Daytime highs=105-110° Fahrenheit Heat Advisory Daytime highs=100-105° Fahrenheit Listen to weather reports for times when extra precautions are needed.
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Heat kills by pushing the human body beyond its limits. In extreme heat and high humidity evaporation is slowed the body must work extra hard to maintain a normal temperature. Most heat disorders occur because the victim has been overexposed to heat has over-exercised for his or her age and physical condition. Those more likely to succumb to extreme heat Older adults Young children Those who are sick Those who are overweight
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Urban areas pose a greater risk from the effects of a prolonged heat wave Than do rural areas. Conditions that can induce heat-related illnesses include stagnant atmospheric conditions poor air quality “Urban Heat-Island Effect" Asphalt and concrete store heat longer Gradually release heat at night Produces higher nighttime temperatures
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Know those in your neighborhood who are elderly, young, sick or overweight. They are more likely to become victims of excessive heat and may need help. Be aware that people living in urban areas may be at greater risk from the effects of a prolonged heat wave than are people living in rural areas. Get trained in first aid to learn how to treat heat- related emergencies. Be a good neighbor
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 What you should do if the weather is extremely hot Listen to NOAA Weather Radio for critical updates from the National Weather Service (NWS). Never leave children or pets alone in closed vehicles. Stay indoors as much as possible and limit exposure to the sun. Stay on the lowest floor out of the sunshine if air conditioning is not available. Postpone outdoor games and activities to a cooler time or location.
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Consider spending the warmest part of the day in public buildings such as libraries, schools, movie theaters, shopping malls, and other community facilities. Go to a designated public shelter if your home loses power during periods of extreme heat. Text SHELTER + your ZIP code to 43362 (4FEMA) to find the nearest shelter in your area (example: shelter 12345) What you should do if the weather is extremely hot
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Eat well-balanced, light, and regular meals. Drink plenty of fluids every day. Drink more fluids before, during, and after physical activity. Limit intake of alcoholic beverages. Be especially careful if you are taking drugs that impair heat regulation, if you are overweight or elderly. What you should do if the weather is extremely hot Avoid using salt tablets unless directed to do so by a physician.
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Dress in loose-fitting, lightweight, and light- colored clothes that cover as much skin as possible. Avoid dark colors because they absorb the sun’s rays. Protect face and head by wearing a wide-brimmed hat. Avoid strenuous work during the warmest part of the day. Use a buddy system when working in extreme heat, and take frequent breaks. Avoid extreme temperature changes. What you should do if the weather is extremely hot
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Check on family, friends, and neighbors who do not have air conditioning and who spend much of their time alone. Check on your animals frequently to ensure that they are not suffering from the heat. Be careful of hot cars in the summer. Allow the car to cool off before getting in. What you should do if the weather is extremely hot
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Heat illnesses are easily preventable by taking precautions in hot weather.
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Causes Heat emergencies are caused by prolonged exposure to extreme heat. The following are common causes of heat emergencies: Alcohol use Dehydration Heart disease High temperatures or humidity Medications such as beta blockers, diuretics, neuroleptics, phenothiazines, and anticholinergics Prolonged or excessive exercise Sweat gland problems Wearing too much clothing
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Heat Cramps Muscular pains and spasms due to heavy exertion. Although heat cramps are the least severe, they are often the first signal that the body is having trouble with the heat. Heat Exhaustion Typically occurs when people exercise heavily or work in a hot, humid place where body fluids are lost through heavy sweating. Blood flow to the skin increases, causing blood flow to decrease to the vital organs. This results in a form of mild shock. If not treated, the victim's condition will worsen. Body temperature will keep rising and the victim may suffer heat stroke. Heat Stroke The victim's temperature control system, which produces sweating to cool the body, stops working. The body temperature can rise so high that brain damage and death may result if the body is not cooled quickly. TYPES OF HEAT EMERGENCIES
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 RECLINE Have the person lie down in a cool place. Raise the person's feet about 12 inches. COOL Apply cool, wet cloths (or cool water directly) to the person's skin Use a fan to lower body temperature. Place cold compresses on the person's neck, groin, and armpits. HYDRATE If alert, give the person beverages to sip (such as Gatorade), or make a salted drink by adding a teaspoon of salt per quart of water. Give a half cup every 15 minutes. Cool water will do if salt beverages are not available. TREATMENT OF HEAT ILLNESS GENERAL GUIDELINES
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 The early symptoms of Heat Illness include : Profuse sweating Fatigue Thirst Muscle Cramps
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Heat Cramps Muscular pain and spasms due to heavy exertion. They usually involve the abdominal muscles or legs. It is generally thought this condition is caused by loss of water and salt through sweating. FIRST AID Get victim to a cool place. If they can tolerate it, give one-half glass of water every 15 minutes. Gentle massage of the affected muscles may give relief. Heat cramps can usually be avoided by increasing fluid intake when active in hot weather.
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Later symptoms of Heat Exhaustion include: Headache Dizziness and light headedness Weakness Nausea and Vomiting Cool, moist skin Dark urine
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Heat Exhaustion Heat exhaustion is less dangerous than heat stroke. It is caused by fluid loss which in turn causes blood flow to decrease in vital organs, resulting in a form of shock. If untreated, heat exhaustion can rapidly deteriorate into heat shock. Body temperature will be near normal.
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 FIRST AID Heat Exhaustion Get the victim out of the heat and into a cool place. Place in the shock position, lying on the back with feet raised. Remove or loosen clothing. Cool by fanning or applying cold packs or wet towels or sheets. If conscious, give water to drink every 15 minutes. IMPORTANT: WHILE HEAT EXHAUSTION IS NOT A LIFE- THREATENING EMERGENCY LIKE HEAT STROKE, IT CAN PROGRESS TO HEAT STROKE IF LEFT UNTREATED
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 The symptoms of Heatstroke include: Fever (temperature above 104 °F) Irrational behavior Extreme confusion Dry, hot, and red skin Rapid, shallow breathing Rapid, weak pulse Seizures Unconsciousness
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Heat Stroke LIFE-THREATENING requires IMMEDIATE and AGGRESSIVE treatment! The body's heat regulating mechanism fails. The body temperature rises so high that brain damage --and death-- may result unless the body is cooled quickly.
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 FIRST AID Heat Stroke is a life-threatening emergency requires prompt action! Call 911 COOL THE VICTIM AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE IN ANY MANNER POSSIBLE! Place the victim into a bathtub of cool water wrap in wet sheets place in an air conditioned room. Do not give victim anything by mouth. Treat for shock
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Do NOT underestimate the seriousness of heat illness Do NOT give the person medications that are used to treat fever (such as aspirin or acetaminophen). Do NOT give the person salt tablets. Do NOT give the person liquids that contain alcohol or caffeine. Do NOT use alcohol rubs on the person's skin. Do NOT give the person anything by mouth if the person is vomiting or unconscious. IMPORTANT CAVEATS
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Call 911 if The person loses consciousness at any time. There is any other change in the person's alertness (for example, confusion or seizures). The person has a fever over 102 °F. Other symptoms of heatstroke are present (like rapid pulse or rapid breathing). The person's condition does not improve, or worsens despite treatment.
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 HYDRATION
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Why is it so important to stay hydrated? Your body depends on water for survival. Water makes up more than half of your body weight. Every cell, tissue and organ in your body needs water to function correctly. Your body uses water to Maintain its temper- ature Transport nutrients to organs and tissues Transpor t oxygen to cells Remove waste Lubricate joints
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Proper hydration is essential for concentration and attention to detail Even a small decline in dehydration levels can result in a decrease of mental and physical performance.
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 How does your body lose water? You lose water each day when you go to the bathroom sweat even when you breathe. You lose water even faster when the weather is really hot when you exercise if you have a fever If you have vomiting and diarrhea If you don’t replace the water you lose, you can become dehydrated
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 An estimated 75 percent of Americans are chronically dehydrated. Dehydration most often occurs when you do not drink enough water regularly enough. On a day-to-day basis, most people won’t realize they are dehydrated until they start to feel the symptoms By this time, the damage of dehydration has already set in.
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Dehydration can result in muscle fatigue Cramps Headaches Dizziness Nausea decreased performance level rapid heart rate
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Symptoms of dehydration include: Dry mouth Sleepiness or fatigue Extreme thirst Headache Dry cough Confusion Feeling dizzy or lightheaded Flushed skin Heat intolerance No tears when crying
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Actively prevent dehydration by drinking plenty of water. The best way to beat dehydration is to drink before you get thirsty. If you wait until after you're thirsty, you're already dehydrated.
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 High levels of exercise Certain medical conditions (Diabetes, HBP) Sick Unable to get enough fluids during the course of the day (work situations) Older folks As you age, your brain may be unable to sense dehydration and send the signals for thirst. Higher risk of dehydration
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 If your urine is consistently colorless or light yellow, you are most likely staying well hydrated.
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Increase your fluids if you Have certain medical conditions, such as kidney stones or bladder infection Are pregnant or breastfeeding Are going to be outside during hot weather Are going to be exercising Have a fever, or have been vomiting or have diarrhea Are trying to lose weight
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Water the best option for staying hydrated. Other fluids fruit / vegetable juices milkherbal teas Caffeinated drinks Increases urination, anxiety, jitteriness A moderate amount of caffeine, 200 to 300 milligrams (about the amount in 2 to 4 8- ounce cups of coffee), is not harmful for most people. Fruits and vegetables WatermelonTomatoeslettuce Soup broths WHAT FLUIDS HYDRATE?
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 What about sports drinks? CONTAIN carbohydrates prevent low blood sugar if you are planning on exercising at a high intensity for longer than an hour Electrolytes especially helpful when there is fever vomiting diarrhea Choose sports drinks wisely often high in calories from sugar may contain high levels of sodium One bottle may contain several servings Some sports drinks contain caffeine.
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Sports drinks are not the same as energy drinks Large amounts of caffeine and other stimulants (for example, guarana or taurine) High in sugar. Many experts recommend that kids and teens should not have energy drinks.
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 What Drinks Cause Dehydration? Coffee Drinking between two and four cups of coffee each day is considered healthy. Equates to approximately 500mg of caffeine Drinking more than this limit for a prolonged period of time can lead to dehydration. Soft Drinks Many soft drinks contain caffeine. The amount of caffeine per serving can vary. It is generally lower than a serving of brewed coffee Excessive consumption of soft drinks can contribute to dehydration, especially in children
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 What Drinks Cause Dehydration? Alcohol Excessive alcohol consumption can cause dehydration Alcohol is a diuretic Excessive alcohol creates an electrolyte imbalance Excessive alcohol prevents the body from being able to absorb water in support of hydration Barring pregnancy or other diagnosed medical conditions that restrict alcohol, moderate alcohol intake may be considered healthy an adult man up to two drinks per day a woman drinking one drink per day
Indiana Family Campers and RVers 2013 Keep a bottle of water with you during the day. Drink water before, during and after exercising. Start and end your day with a glass of water. Drink water when you’re feeling hungry Thirst is often confused with hunger Drink on a schedule When you wake up; at breakfast, lunch and dinner; and when you go to bed. Drink a small glass of water at the top of each hour. Drink water when you go to a restaurant. Keep you hydrated It’s free Tips for staying hydrated