2Heat Related Illnesses Exposure to abnormal or prolonged amounts of heat and humidity without relief or adequate fluid intake can cause various types of heat-related illness. Always remember that mild heat illnesses have the potential of becoming severe life threatening emergencies if not treated properly.An example of the bodies way of trying to get rid of this heat is through sweating is one of the body's normal cooling mechanisms.
3DehydrationThis is a condition that occurs when the loss of body fluids, mostly water, exceeds the amount that is taken in. With dehydration, more water is moving out of our cells and then out of our bodies than the amount of water we take in through drinking.Sign and Symptoms:Increased thirstDry mouth and swollen tongueWeaknessDizzinessPalpitations (feeling that the heart is jumping or pounding)ConfusionSluggishness faintingFaintingInability to sweatDecreased urine outputFirst-Aid Treatment:Sipping small amounts of water or carbohydrate/electrolyte-containing drinks such as Gatorade.Sucking on popsicles made from juices and sports drinksRemove any excess clothing and loosen other clothing.Place a wet towel around the person.Move the athlete into a cooler area.
4Dehydration fun factsHydration should begin at least hours before activity!Beverages that contain caffeine, i.e. coffee, some tea and some sodas act as diuretics, increasing urine production and promoting loss of fluids.Water has a profound effect on brain function and energy levels. Even a slight dehydration can produce a small but critical shrinkage of the brain, impairing neuromuscular coordination, concentration and thinking.If dehydration is not stopped by drinking water, it can lead to further problems.
5Heat CrampsHeat cramps are the mildest form of a heat injury and consist of painful muscle cramps and spasms that occur during or after intense exercise and sweating in high heat. Often caused by dehydration.Signs and Symptoms:Painful cramps, especially in the legsFlushed, moist skinMild fever, usually less than 102º FFirst-Aid Treatment:Move to a cool place and rest.Remove excess clothing and place cool cloths on skin; fan skin.Give cool sports drinks containing salt and sugar such as Gatorade.Stretch cramped muscles slowly and gently.
6Heat ExhaustionHeat exhaustion is more severe than heat cramps and results from a loss of water and salt in the body. It occurs in conditions of extreme heat and excessive sweating without adequate fluid and salt replacement. Heat exhaustion occurs when the body is unable to cool itself properly and, if left untreated, can progress to heat stroke.Signs and Symptoms:Muscle crampsPale, moist skinUsually has a fever over 102º FNauseaVomitingDiarrheaHeadacheFatigueWeaknessAnxiety, and faint feelingFirst-Aid Treatment:Move to a cool place and rest.Remove excess clothing and place cool cloths on skin; fan skin.Give cool sports drinks containing salt and sugar such as Gatorade.If no improvement or unable to take fluids, call your child's physician or take your child to an emergency department immediately. IV (intravenous) fluids may be needed.
7Heat StrokeHeat stroke, the most severe form of heat illness, occurs when the body's heat-regulating system is overwhelmed by excessive heat. It is a life-threatening emergency and requires immediate medical attention.Signs and Symptoms:warm, dry skinhigh fever, usually over 104º Frapid heart rateloss of appetitenauseavomitingheadachefatigueconfusionagitationlethargystuporseizures, coma, and death are possibleFirst-Aid Treatment:Move to a cool place and rest.Call 911 or your local emergency medical service. Heat stroke is a life-threatening medical emergency and needs to be treated by a physician.Remove excess clothing and drench skin with cool water; fan skin.Place ice bags on the armpits and groin areas.Offer cool fluids if alert and able to drink.
8SunburnsSunburn results when the amount of exposure to the sun or other ultraviolet light source exceeds the ability of the body's protective pigment, melanin, to protect the skin. Sunburn in a very light-skinned person may occur in less than 15 minutes of midday sun exposure, while a dark-skinned person may tolerate the same exposure for hours.First-Aid Treatment:Keep it cool. Apply cold compresses such as a towel dampened with cool water.Keep it moist. Apply aloe or moisturizing cream to the affected skin. Avoid products containing alcohol. Don’t apply lotion, it could keep the heat trapped in.Leave blisters intact. If blisters form, don't break them. You'll only slow the healing process and increase the risk of infection. If needed, lightly cover blisters with gauze.Signs and Symptoms:Red, tender skin that is warm to touch.Blisters that develop hours to days later.Severe reactions (sometimes called "sun poisoning"), including fever, chills, nausea, or rash.Skin peeling on sunburned areas several days after the sunburn.