Presentation on theme: "PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONS February 2012"— Presentation transcript:
1 PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONS February 2012 RESEARCH METHODSPRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONSFebruary 2012
2 Question 1 Matched-subjects design Random sample A researcher wants to sample from the population such that gender and age groups are represented in proportion to their numbers within the population. His study would use:Matched-subjects designRandom sampleRepeated measures designStratified sample
3 Question 1 AnswerDA stratified sample ensures that the subset derived from the population represents relevant groups and/or subject characteristics in proportion to their numbers within the population.
4 Question 2The main purpose for using random sampling in an experiment is to ensure that:The participants chosen form a representative subset of the populationAll extraneous variables are removed from the experimental designThe volunteers form a sample that is equal in all relevant demographic characteristicsThe participants are less likely to behave according to the experimenter’s expectations
5 Question 2 AnswerAThe main purpose for using random sampling in an experiment is to ensure that the participants chosen form a representative subset of the population.
6 Question 3The main role of the control group in an experiment is that itIs exposed to the IV such that there is no chance of any interference from the experimenter.Provides a basis for comparison against which the behaviour of the experimental group can be assessed.Balances the overall sample to eliminate all confounding variables.Ensures that statistical analysis can confirm the hypothesis
7 Question 3 AnswerBThe main role of the control group in an experiment is to provide a basis for comparison against which the behaviour of the experimental group can be assessed.
8 Question 4 Control group Dependent group Experimental group In order to explore the effect of alcohol on visual perception, an experiment was devised using two groups. The first group performed a series of tasks when completely sober, while the second group performed the tasks after consuming alcohol to bring their BAC level up to at least 0.05%. The latter group in this case was the:Control groupDependent groupExperimental groupIndependent group
9 Question 4 AnswerCThe group exposed to the independent variable, in this case the alcohol condition, is the experimental group.
10 Question 5In order to perform an ERA to see if expectancy would alter perception, a psychology class asked students at random within the canteen queue whether they would consent to being part of the experiment. Half of the students were shown an ambiguous sketch (Bugelski and Alampay’s Rat/Man) and asked to say what they saw whereas the other half were shown the same picture but asked to say what animal they perceived.Why did the experimenters choose to select the participants at random?What is the term that describes the first group (that were given no instructions)? Briefly explain its purpose within the experimental design marks
12 Question 5 AnswerRandom selection of participants is used to try to control for subject variables in order to make the sample representative of the population under study.The control group…acts as a basis for comparison against the experimental group (or to compare the effect of the IV with the experimental group)
13 Question 6A psychology teacher wants to perform an ERA within her school based on Loftus’ eyewitness studies to see if perceptual set was a factor affecting the interpretation of a “Crime Scene”picture. As her school had a broad multicultural population, with different numbers of students within each ethnic group, what method would she have to apply in order to control for the subject variable of cultural background and ethnicity? Briefly explain what she would need to do.2 marks
14 Question 6 AnswerThe method required to control for the subject variable of cultural background and ethnicity would be stratified sampling.While still employing random sampling, the teacher would need to ensure that each culture/ethnic group was represented within the sample in the same proportions as they occur within the school population.
15 Question 7Researchers wish to investigate the effect of caffeine levels on sleep patterns. In order to do so, they obtain a random sample of adults, controlling for age and gender proportions within the general population. These participants were then split into three groups keeping these same proportions, and made to undergo each of the three experimental conditions. In random order, these groups were:Deprived of all caffeine for one weekAllowed to have what is considered a “normal” amount of caffeine in their diet for one weekGiven higher levels of caffeine than “normal” for one week
16 The researchers in this case have employed: An independent-groups designA matched-participants designA placebo groupA repeated measures design
17 Question 7 AnswerDThe researchers in this case have employed a repeated measures design as each group of participants was exposed to all three experimental conditions.
18 Question 8 Attempting to eliminate experimenter bias The researchers above decide to subject the participants to another experimental condition whereby they only consume de-caffeinated beverages, but are under the impression that they are having a “normal” amount of caffeine. By including this condition, the researchers are:Attempting to eliminate experimenter biasEmploying a double blind procedureTrying to control for the placebo effectIntroducing too many variables for analysis
19 Question 8 AnswerCThe participants’ believe that they are experiencing an experimental condition, whereas in fact this condition has a null effect in terms of the IV (caffeine level). This condition has been introduced to counter any effect that the participants’ expectations may have on their sleep patterns. As it is only the participants who are unaware that this is a fake condition, it is a single blind, not a double blind procedure.
20 Question 9 Confidentiality Debriefing Informed consent Psychologists must inform participants of the nature of the research and that participants are free to participate n or to decline to participate or to withdraw from the research. These requirements are necessary to ensure:ConfidentialityDebriefingInformed consentResearch participation
21 Question 9 AnswerCInforming participants of the nature of the research and that they are free to participate or to decline to participa
22 Question 10 The participants’ rights to privacy. Which of the following is not one of the primary ethical considerations in research with humans?The participants’ rights to privacy.The use of deception within the research designThe provision of details regarding the experiment to the research participantsThe participants’ right to continue even if they are exhibiting signs of discomfort or distress.