Presentation on theme: "Know Your Nose Candy Crack or Cocaine Legal and Illicit Compounds And How They Work."— Presentation transcript:
Know Your Nose Candy Crack or Cocaine Legal and Illicit Compounds And How They Work
Outline Axons (the hardware) Neurotransmitters (the software) Drugs (the virus)
Axons – The Hardware Dendrites at one end receive stimuli. Depolarize and allow charges to cross the cell membrane starting an action potential. Release stored chemical messengers into the synaptic gap.
The Synapse At the presynaptic axon, neurotransmitters are made and stored. When released, they diffuse across a gap, and bind at a specific receptor (protein). The receptor changes shape and allows for depolarization.
The Synapse Binding is reversible. The neurotransmitter lets go Metabolized or taken back into the original axon. Can happen more than 400 times per second.
Two Basic States Excitement –Axons in this state release neurotransmitters that stimulate other neurons. Inhibition –Axons in this state release neurotransmitters that inhibit other neurons. Therefore the chemical messengers often occur in pairs to both stimulate and inhibit various functions. A sample pair would be GABA and Glutamate
Important Point # 1 Neurotransmitters are small molecules, whose presence in the synaptic gap stimulates a response in other axons, tissues, etc. Neurotransmitters are removed from the synaptic gap to end transmission of the signal. They can either excite or inhibit activity.
Modes of Action Agonism –A compound that produces more of a compound, or does the job of a natural substance. –Does not effect the rate of an enzyme catalyzed reaction. Antagonism –A compound inhibits an enzyme from doing its job. –Slows down an enzymatically catalyzed reaction. –May chemically appear like a normal analate.
Important Point #2 Agonists – drugs that create an artificial stimulus and ‘trick’ the body into doing something that it would normally do in the presence of the actual stimulus. Antagonists – drugs that keep something in the body from doing its normal job. Generally this inhibits the reuptake of neurotransmitters.
Drug Philosophy Act as either an agonist or an antagonist for something in the body. Any psychoactive drug that is administered plays on the use of neurotransmitters to do its job. The drug is not always necessary. A coach isn’t always necessary either, but it helps.
Birth Control Medication Agonist Basic steroid structure. Progesterone naturally released after fertilization of an egg to limit further ovulation events. Original use of progesterone analogs – pregnancy promoters. Enovid – approved for sale in GD Searle.
Birth Control Medication This progesterone analogs mimics the natural steroid that is produced during pregnancy. The pill tricks the body into thinking it is pregnant to stop ovulation events. Male version of the pill developed and tested in 2000.
Caffeine Basic Information –The most widely used and abused legal stimulant in the world. –Coffee Beans were originally chewed –Hot extract drinks (coffee) were produced around 1000 A.D. –Currently present in soda and coffee beverages.
Caffeine Caffeine blocks adenosine receptors. There is enough caffeine in 2-3 cups of coffee to block 50% of the adenosine receptors. Effects –Heart stimulation –Diuresis (excess urination or urine volume)
Caffeine Function Caffeine blocks adenosine receptors. Adenosine acts as a neural inhibitor for CNS activity. Adenosine is not a neurotransmitter, it is a neuromodulator. As caffeine blocks the receptors it acts as a stimulant.
Caffeine in Excess Too much caffeine (6 cups or more/day) increases the number of adenosine receptors on axons. Sluggishness in the absence of caffeine. Physiological and Psychological addiction.
Where to go to get your fix.
The Illegal Stuff So lets look at less than legal stuff. Agonists, antagonists Effects on other parts of the body. Mode of action. Ways in which they are used.
Cocaine Schedule II compound. Used for pain relief for some procedures. Cocaine hydrochloride Quaternary amine, charged, white powder.
Crack Tertiary amine No formal charge Fat soluble Must be smoked
Cocaine - Origins Found in leaves of various plants. Sold in tonics. Part of the original Coca-Cola recipe. Coca leaves chewed by indigenous peoples to increase alertness.
Taking Cocaine Smoking – (Crack) Gets to the brain the fastest (Peak in 1-2 minutes) Snorting – Cocaine (Peak in 30 minutes) Ingestion (Tonic, Leaf chewing) Low levels maintained over long time.
Cocaine Effects Cocaine is an antagonist for the dopamine reuptake enzyme. Quickly metabolized. Half of the original dose gone in an hour. Blocks reuptake of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine.
Dopamine - Rewards Since dopamine deals with rewards, excess levels leads to stimulus addiction. Cocaine is a quick high so people will take enough cocaine to kill themselves, whereas they would not choose that with alcohol.
Amphetamines / Methylamphetamines Amphetamines are chiral compounds. Levoamphetamine affects nasal passages. Dextroamphetamine enters the brain. Once given to soldiers in WWII to promote alertness and delay sleep, hunger, etc.
Methylamphetamines These cause a rapid release of stored serotonin and dopamine. Are not easily metabolized by the body. Readsorbed by axons. Very long effectiveness hours.
Full body effects of amphetamines Simulates the fight or flight response. Basically makes you ready for a fast response for several hours. Your heart rate increases, brain function speeds up. You are in constant motion. Other portions of the nervous system get sensitive to invisible stimuli. ‘Picking’
Detection THC is metabolized to another compound. Detection of 15ng/mL is legal limit for proof of exposure to significant amount. (More than being passively surrounded.) Single use detectable for up to 3 days. 10 days in a simple urine analysis. Continual use detectable for 28 days or more.
SSRI Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Serotonin effects mood and appetite in the brain. Blocks the enzymes that take them up. Artificially elevates serotonin levels. Prozac, Celexa, Zoloft, Paxil
Prescription Since 1986 more than 50 million people have taken Prozac for treatment for anything from anorexia to panic disorder. Zoloft is prescribed for SAD, PTSD, OCD, PMDD (all entries to the DSM) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Arbitrary entries, like homosexuality. Easier to obtain an entry than make a new drug. Easier to make a disease than a cure.
Fin Vote well. Be well informed in all of your choices. These substances have effect while you take them, and after. Especially for drugs, the laws are very confusing. For prescription medication, know the rules of how you can be marketed to. Mark it 8 dude.