Presentation on theme: "1. If a stimulus shifts the potential inside a neuron from the resting potential to a more negative potential, the result is __________. A) hyperpolarization."— Presentation transcript:
1. If a stimulus shifts the potential inside a neuron from the resting potential to a more negative potential, the result is __________. A) hyperpolarization B) depolarization C) an action potential D) a threshold
2. If a stimulus shifts the potential inside a neuron from the resting potential to a potential slightly closer to zero, the result is known as __________. A) hyperpolarization B) depolarization C) selective permeability D) the refractory period
3. When we say that the neuron's membrane is electrically polarized, we refer to a difference in electrical potential between A) the axons and the dendrites. B) the axon hillock and the tip of the axon. C) sodium ions and potassium ions. D) the inside and the outside of the membrane.
4. The sodium ‑ potassium pump pumps sodium ions __________ and potassium ions __________. A) into the cell... into the cell B) into the cell... out of the cell C) out of the cell... out of the cell D) out of the cell... into the cell
5. Which of the following movements of ions would depolarize the membrane of a neuron? A) sodium ions into the cell B) sodium ions out of the cell C) potassium ions out of the cell D) chloride ions into the cell
6. The threshold for a neuron is generally __________ than the resting potential. A) 15 mV closer to 0 mV B) 15 mV farther from 0 mV C) 70 mV closer to 0 mV D) 70 mV farther from 0 mV
7. A certain weak stimulus produces no reflexive response. Rapid repetition of the same neuron may produce such a response, however. This observation is known as A) temporal summation. B) spatial summation. C) saltatory conduction. D) synaptic inhibition.
8. The primary difference between temporal summation and spatial summation is that spatial summation A) can produce an action potential. B) depends on contributions from more than one incoming axon. C) produces a hyperpolarization instead of a depolarization. D) alters the response of more than one postsynaptic cell.
9. Once an action potential starts, A) it gains in strength as it travels along the axon. B) it needs additional stimuli from outside the cell to keep it going at various points along the axon. C) it increases in speed as it goes. D) it is regenerated at various points along the axon, the same way that it began
10. What are the nodes of Ranvier? A) gates in the membrane that admit all ions freely B) branching points in an axon C) places where dendrites join the cell body D) interruptions in the myelin sheath
11. Which of the following combinations would be most likely to summate to produce an action potential? A) two IPSPs B) two EPSPs C) an IPSP plus an EPSP D) Any of these combinations would be equally likely to produce an action potential
12. An IPSP is a(n) A) location where a dendrite branches. B) interruption in a myelin sheath. C) subthreshold depolarization. D) temporary hyperpolarization.
13. The term saltatory conduction describes which of the following? A. The movement of a signal in a single direction. B. The rapid conduction of a signal along an axon. C. The decay of an action potential. D. The need for ions that make salt.
14. Which of the following would be most likely to evoke an IPSP? A. An influx of sodium ions. B. An influx of potassium ions. C. An influx of chloride ions. D. An efflux of chloride ions.
15. Movement down a concentration gradient describes which of the following? A. Movement of ions from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. B. Movement of ions from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration. C. Movement of positive ions towards negative ions. D. Movement of yuppies to the suburbs.
16. Serotonin is synthesized in the brain, beginning with the amino acid __________. A) phenylalanine. B) aspartate. C) tryptophan. D) glutamate.
17. A vesicle is a packet filled with A) sodium ions. B) potassium ions. C) neurotransmitter. D) calcium ions.
18. A drug that blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter is a(n) __________; a drug that mimics or increases the effects is a(n) __________. A) neuromodulator... synergist B) agonist... antagonist C) depressant... stimulant D) antagonist... agonist
19. Saying that a drug has an affinity for a receptor means A) they both have similar chemical compositions and produce similar effects. B) the drug readily binds with the receptor. C) the drug is attracted to the opposite electrical charge of the receptor. D) the drug has warm, positive feelings for the receptor.
20. Drugs influence brain activity by A) affecting presynaptic events. B) affecting postsynaptic receptors. C) affecting neurotransmitters in the synapse after transmission has occurred. D) all of the above
21. The drugs known as MAOIs inhibit an enzyme that A) synthesizes catecholamines like NE and DA. B) synthesizes GABA. C) breaks down catecholamines like NE and DA. D) breaks down GABA.
22. Tricyclic drugs act by A) blocking the release of catecholamines. B) preventing the presynaptic cell from reabsorbing catecholamines. C) directly stimulating the postsynaptic cell's catecholamine receptors. D) increasing the rate of synthesis of catecholamines
23. Based on the antidepressant effects of fluoxetine (Prozac) we can infer that __________ synapses are in some way involved in depression. A) acetylcholine B) GABA C) dopamine D) serotonin
24. Loewi discovered that ______________ decreased heart rate A) acetylcholine B) epinephrine C) serotonin D) lack of electricity
25. Opium and morphine are both ________ for endorphins A) antagonists B) agonists C) reuptake blockers D) precursors
26 Alzheimer’s disease is related to an excessive loss of A) A) glial cells B) B) the myelin sheath C) C) ACh neurons D) D) the basal ganglia
27. Which of the following is true about psychoactive drugs? A) They may alter mood. B) They may alter behavior. C) They all have the potential to be abused. D) All of the above.
28. For which of the following have researchers developed the most effective treatment with fewest side-effects? A) Depression B) Schizophrenia C) Bipolar disorder D)Mania
29. Which of the following has been implicated as a contributing factor in the development of schizophrenia. A. Dopamine overactivity B. Frontal lobe atrophy C. Limbic system overactivity D. All of the above
30. Which of the following is categorized as an affective disorder? A. Schizophrenia B. Mania C. OCD D. PKU