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Unit 3 A Biological Bases of Behavior Neural Processing and the Endocrine System.

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1 Unit 3 A Biological Bases of Behavior Neural Processing and the Endocrine System

2 Unit 3A: Biological Bases of Behavior: Neural Processing and the Endocrine System

3 Unit Overview Neural Communication The Nervous System The Endocrine System Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation.

4 Biological Psychology  branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior  some biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists

5 Neural Communication

6 Types of Neurons Sensory neurons Carry information from sensory systems to the brain Also referred to as afferent Motor neurons Carry information from the brain to muscles and glands Also referred to as efferent Interneurons Carry information between other neurons

7 Structure of Neurons Dendrites Carry information to the cell body from other neurons Cell Body (Soma) Contains nucleus Axon Carries information to the next cell Myelin Sheath Insulates the axon and speeds up the neural impulse Terminal Branches Found at the end of neurons, connects to the dendrites of next neuron, contains chemical messengers.

8 Neurons

9 Speed of a neuron impulse Range from 2 to 200 MPH Measured in milliseconds (thousandths of a second)

10 Neurons Firing of a neuron Action potential Ions Positively versus negatively charged Resting potential Selectively permeable

11 Neural Communication  Resting Potential  Nothing is happening. The gates are closed and the positive ions are on the outside with the negative ions on the inside of the cell. “Negative Ions inside the Neuron is Natural”  Action Potential – (Neural Impulse)  a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon  generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon’s membrane  This process is due to stimulation from either heat, chemicals, pressure or light

12 Neurons Firing of a neuron Depolarize Refractory period Excitatory versus inhibitory Threshold All or none response

13 The Neural Impulse Polarization When the inside of the Neuron is negatively charged relative to the outside (resting potential) Depolarization When the electrical charge of a cell moves toward zero

14 Neural Communication Refractory Period (Reload, Recharge) The time it takes for the positive ions to be pumped out.  Threshold  the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

15 Action Potential

16 How Neurons Communicate Synapse Synaptic gap (synaptic cleft) Neurotransmitters Reuptake

17 Synapse Synapse [SIN-aps] a junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. This tiny gap is called the synaptic gap or cleft.

18 Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters (chemicals) released from the sending neuron travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing it to generate an action potential.

19 Reuptake Neurotransmitters in the synapse are reabsorbed into the sending neurons through the process of reuptake. This process applies the brakes on neurotransmitter action.

20 How Neurons Communicate

21 How Neurotransmitters Influence Us Acetylcholine (AcH) Dopamine Serotonin Norepinephrine GABA Glutamate Endorphins

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23 How Neurotransmitters Influence Us How Drugs and Other Chemicals Alter Neurotransmitters Agonists versus antagonists Agonists (Act) Antagonists (Block)

24 Agonists and Antagonists

25 Psychopharmacology Curare (koo-ra-ray) Can stun or kill prey quickly Blocks ACh receptors causing paralysis Antipsychotic medications Block dopamine receptors Reduces schizophrenic hallucinations Caffeine Increases the release of excitatory neurotransmitters by blocking the inhibitory neurotransmitter adenosine (a-den-oh-seen)

26 Psychopharmacology How do drugs and alcohol affect our brains? Mouse party

27 The Nervous System Nervous System: The bodies speedy, electrochemical communication network. Central Nervous System (CNS): the brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): the sensory and motor neurons that connect the body to the CNS

28 Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Nervous System: Controls Voluntary Actions. (I volunteer “Somah” community is a better place. ) Autonomic Nervous System: Controls our glands and muscles of internal organs.. “My love, you Autonomically make my heart beat” Sympathetic Nervous System: arouses and expands energy. When I feel sympathy for someone, my heart beats for them. Parasympathetic Nervous System: Conserves energy and calms the body. ”I’m so calm I feel paralyzed.”

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30 A Simple Reflex

31 The Nervous System  Reflex  a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus Skin receptors Muscle Sensory neuron (incoming information) Motor neuron (outgoing information) Brain Interneuron Spinal cord

32 Endocrine System Endocrine System: the body’s “Slow” communication system. Hormones: Chemical messengers that travel through the body and brain and affect our behavior. Adrenal Glands: secrete hormones that arouse the body in times of stress. Pituitary Glands: Regulates growth and controls the other endocrine glands.

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