Presentation on theme: "Unit 3 A Biological Bases of Behavior"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 3 A Biological Bases of Behavior Neural Processing and the Endocrine System
2Unit 3A: Biological Bases of Behavior: Neural Processing and the Endocrine System
3Unit Overview Neural Communication The Nervous System The Endocrine SystemClick on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation.
4Biological Psychology branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behaviorsome biological psychologists call themselves behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, behavior geneticists, physiological psychologists, or biopsychologists
6Types of Neurons Sensory neurons Motor neurons Interneurons Carry information from sensory systems to the brainAlso referred to as afferentMotor neuronsCarry information from the brain to muscles and glandsAlso referred to as efferentInterneuronsCarry information between other neurons
7Structure of Neurons Terminal Branches Dendrites Cell Body (Soma) Axon Carry information to the cell body from other neuronsCell Body (Soma)Contains nucleusAxonCarries information to the next cellMyelin SheathInsulates the axon and speeds up the neural impulseTerminal BranchesFound at the end of neurons, connects to the dendrites of next neuron, contains chemical messengers.
9Speed of a neuron impulse NeuronsSpeed of a neuron impulseRange from 2 to 200 MPHMeasured in milliseconds(thousandths of a second)
10Selectively permeable NeuronsFiring of a neuronAction potentialIonsPositively versusnegatively chargedResting potentialSelectively permeable
11Neural Communication Resting Potential Nothing is happening. The gates are closed and the positive ions are on the outside with the negative ions on the inside of the cell.“Negative Ions inside the Neuron is Natural”Action Potential – (Neural Impulse)a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axongenerated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon’s membraneThis process is due to stimulation from either heat, chemicals, pressure or light
12Neurons Firing of a neuron Depolarize Refractory period Excitatory versus inhibitoryThresholdAll or none response
13The Neural Impulse Polarization Depolarization When the inside of the Neuron is negatively charged relative to the outside (resting potential)DepolarizationWhen the electrical charge of a cell moves toward zero
14Neural Communication Refractory Period (Reload, Recharge) Threshold The time it takes for the positive ions to be pumped out.Thresholdthe level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
16How Neurons Communicate SynapseSynaptic gap (synaptic cleft)NeurotransmittersReuptake
17SynapseSynapse [SIN-aps] a junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. This tiny gap is called the synaptic gap or cleft.OBJECTIVE 4| Describe how nerve cells communicate. Synapse was coined by Lord Sherrington ( ) who inferred it through behavioral experiments. Cajal ( ) described the synapse based on his anatomical studies of the brain.
18NeurotransmittersNeurotransmitters (chemicals) released from the sending neuron travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing it to generate an action potential.
19ReuptakeNeurotransmitters in the synapse are reabsorbed into the sending neurons through the process of reuptake. This process applies the brakes on neurotransmitter action.
25Psychopharmacology Curare (koo-ra-ray) Antipsychotic medications Can stun or kill prey quicklyBlocks ACh receptors causing paralysisAntipsychotic medicationsBlock dopamine receptorsReduces schizophrenic hallucinationsCaffeineIncreases the release of excitatory neurotransmitters by blocking the inhibitory neurotransmitter adenosine (a-den-oh-seen)
26Psychopharmacology How do drugs and alcohol affect our brains? Mouse party
27The Nervous SystemNervous System: The bodies speedy, electrochemical communication network.Central Nervous System (CNS): the brain and spinal cordPeripheral Nervous System (PNS): the sensory and motor neurons that connect the body to the CNS
28Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Nervous System: Controls Voluntary Actions. (I volunteer “Somah” community is a better place. )Autonomic Nervous System: Controls our glands and muscles of internal organs.. “My love, you Autonomically make my heart beat”Sympathetic Nervous System: arouses and expands energy. When I feel sympathy for someone, my heart beats for them.Parasympathetic Nervous System: Conserves energy and calms the body. ”I’m so calm I feel paralyzed.”
31The Nervous System Reflex a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulusSkinreceptorsMuscleSensory neuron(incoming information)Motor neuron(outgoinginformation)BrainInterneuronSpinal cord
32Endocrine SystemEndocrine System: the body’s “Slow” communication system.Hormones: Chemical messengers that travel through the body and brain and affect our behavior.Adrenal Glands: secrete hormones that arouse the body in times of stress.Pituitary Glands: Regulates growth and controls the other endocrine glands.