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OPTION E E4 NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND SYNAPSES. Pre-synaptic neurons can either excite or inhibit post-synaptic transmissions. (AP = “______________”) This.

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Presentation on theme: "OPTION E E4 NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND SYNAPSES. Pre-synaptic neurons can either excite or inhibit post-synaptic transmissions. (AP = “______________”) This."— Presentation transcript:

1 OPTION E E4 NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND SYNAPSES

2 Pre-synaptic neurons can either excite or inhibit post-synaptic transmissions. (AP = “______________”) This depends on which __________________(NT) is used and which _______________ they bind to. E.4.1 STATE THAT SOME PRESYNAPTIC NEURONS EXCITE POST SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION WHILE OTHERS INHIBIT POST-SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION.

3 Excitatory: NT __________ an AP in the post-synaptic neuron NT binding to the receptors opens _________ gates, causing sodium to flow in, ______________ the neuron. Na + in, neuron _________________, depolarization occurs. NT: e.g. glutamate, acetylcholine (Ach), norepinephrine (NE), _____________

4 Inhibitory: NT __________ an AP in the post-synaptic neuron NT binding to the receptors opens __________ gates, causing chloride to flow in, _________________ the neuron. Cl - in, neuron _______________, more difficult to depolarize, impulse ____________. NT: e.g. _______, dopamine E.4.1 STATE THAT SOME PRESYNAPTIC NEURONS EXCITE POST SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION WHILE OTHERS INHIBIT POST- SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION.

5 ____________ =  -Aminobutyric acid GABA is a NT that opens _______________________ on the post- synaptic membrane. Cl - rushes in, _____________________ the post-synaptic neuron and _____________ APs. GABA is important in regulating nervous processes – a “_____________” or depressive effect (reducing activity). It prevents neurons from __________, and can be used as a drug to help people with anxiety or stress-related disorders. ________ mimics the effect of GABA, further increasing hyperpolarization and therefore greatly reducing nerve activity. E.4.1 STATE THAT SOME PRESYNAPTIC NEURONS EXCITE POST SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION WHILE OTHERS INHIBIT POST- SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION.

6 Important points to remember: - ________ of many neurons feed into the _________ of the post-synaptic neuron - each axon contributes to the _____________________ of the post-synaptic neuron - effects of the each input can be either ___________ or ____________ - effect is ____________ and is added up at the _________________. E.4.2 EXPLAIN HOW DECISION-MAKING IN THE CNS CAN RESULT FROM THE INTERACTION BETWEEN THE ACTIVITIES OF EXCITATORY AND INHIBITORY PRESYNAPTIC NEURONS AT SYNAPSES.

7 If the summative effect of the inputs reaches _____________, an AP is propagated. E.4.2 EXPLAIN HOW DECISION-MAKING IN THE CNS CAN RESULT FROM THE INTERACTION BETWEEN THE ACTIVITIES OF EXCITATORY AND INHIBITORY PRESYNAPTIC NEURONS AT SYNAPSES. Temporal Summation: multiple _________ from one input Spatial Summation: multiple __________

8 E.4.3 EXPLAIN HOW PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS AFFECT THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY BY EITHER INCREASING OR DECREASING POSTSYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION. Inhibitory drugs Excitatory drugs Block re-uptake pumps for NTs - NT __________________ -e.g. cocaine’s effect on dopamine Blocks excitatory NTs - ___________ APs - e.g. opiates (heroin) block pain pathway by competitive inhibition Mimic inhibitory NTs -________________ of post-synaptic neuron - _______ APs - e.g. alcohol mimics GABA effects, reducing APs Block inhibitory NTs - prevent _______________ -e.g. caffeine competitively inhibit adenosine Mimic excitatory NTs -__________________, -_______ APs -e.g. nicotine

9 E.4.4 LIST THREE EXAMPLES OF EXCITATORY AND THREE EXAMPLES OF INHIBITORY PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS. Excitatory -_______: stimulate alertness and memory, nausea and vomiting -_________________: increases heart rate, respiration, alertness -_________________: causes anxiety and psychosis.

10 E.4.4 LIST THREE EXAMPLES OF EXCITATORY AND THREE EXAMPLES OF INHIBITORY PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS. Inhibitory -___________________: muscle relaxant, reduces anxiety. -________: slows and prevents movement, impairs reasoning skills. -________: reduces heart rate, breathing rate, and blood pressure.

11 Excitatory drugs = Cocaine E.4.5 EXPLAIN THE EFFECTS OF THC AND COCAINE IN TERMS OF THEIR ACTION AT SYNAPSES IN THE BRAIN. Normal: -Dopamine acts as an ___________________ -Dopamine is ______________ at the pre-synaptic neuron pumps With Cocaine: -____________________ on reuptake pump -Dopamine not re-uptaken; remains in __________________ -_________ dopamine is released -_____________ post-synaptic transmission Effect on mood/behavior -Enhanced feelings of ___________(dopamine is a “pleasure” NT) -___________ energy and alertness -Highly ___________ -Associated with ____________ (body reduces its own dopamine)

12 Inhibitory drugs = THC (cannibis) Normal: -Two pathways to consider 1) pathway released _________, increasing feelings of ________ 2) _______ has an ___________ effect on release of dopamine With THC: -Inhibits _________________ by binding to __________________ -GABA cannot _______________ -__________ dopamine is released -___________ post-synaptic transmission Effect on mood/behavior -Enhanced feelings of __________ (dopamine is a “pleasure” NT) -______________ (drunk feeling), hunger, memory impairment E.4.5 EXPLAIN THE EFFECTS OF THC AND COCAINE IN TERMS OF THEIR ACTION AT SYNAPSES IN THE BRAIN.

13 Addiction - a __________________________disorder with genetic, psychosocial and environmental characteristics. - is characterized by changes in the brain resulting in a ______________________to use a drug. - “___________________” in the brain play a key role in reinforcing behavior that may lead to addiction. E4.6 D ISCUSS THE CAUSES OF ADDICTION, INCLUDING GENETIC PREDISPOSITION, SOCIAL FACTORS, AND DOPAMINE SECRETION.

14 Reward Pathway - makes one feel good when he/she engages in behaviors that are ______________________(e.g. eating, drinking) E4.6 D ISCUSS THE CAUSES OF ADDICTION, INCLUDING GENETIC PREDISPOSITION, SOCIAL FACTORS, AND DOPAMINE SECRETION. ____________ is the NT most prevalent in the reward pathway. - generate a feeling of ___________ - high levels of dopamine cause a feeling of ___________ - user may seek to repeat by using the drug again (____________) - ____________ of the drug leads to anxiety, depression and craving

15 Some people are ______________ more pre-disposed to becoming addicted than others. May be the result of genetically determined deficiency of __________________________ The children of addicts are ______________ to become addicts themselves. E4.6 D ISCUSS THE CAUSES OF ADDICTION, INCLUDING GENETIC PREDISPOSITION, SOCIAL FACTORS, AND DOPAMINE SECRETION.

16 Psychosocial factors are a heavy influence in addiction: E4.6 D ISCUSS THE CAUSES OF ADDICTION, INCLUDING GENETIC PREDISPOSITION, SOCIAL FACTORS, AND DOPAMINE SECRETION.


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