4 Learning objectives for week 12 – to discover the African origins of coffee to learn how the Muslim world brought coffee out of Africa to appreciate some of the ways coffee has influenced world history to learn about Fair Trade: coffee's latest trend
5 Terms you should know: Ethiopia Mocha Sufi TIP Fair Trade
6 Sources used for this presentation: Braudel, Fernand Capitalism and Material Life: 1400–1800. New York: Harper Colophon. Trans. By Miriam Kochan.Dicum, Gregory, and Luttinger, Nina The Coffee Book: Anatomy of an Industry from Crop to the Last Drop. New York: The New Press.Grun, Bernard The Timetables of History. New York: Simon and Schuster. New Third Revised Edition.Hattox, Ralph S Coffee and Coffeehouses: The Origins of a Social Beverage in the Medieval Near East. Seattle: University of Washington Near Eastern Studies No. 3.Pendergrast, Mark Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World. New York: Basic Books.Anth 140This slide was updated 18 March 2013
7 Richard W. FrankeO Coffee! Thou dost dispel all care, thou are the object of desire to the scholar. This is the beverage of the friends of God.In Praise of CoffeeArabic poem, 1511Quoted in Pendergrast, page xv.
8 “Coffee leads men to trifle away their time, scald their chops, and spend their money, all for a little base, black, thick, nasty, bitter, stinking nauseous puddle water.”
9 “…coffee falls into your stomach, and straightaway…ideas begin to move….Things remembered…. Similes arise, the paper is covered with ink.”Honoré de Balzac 1799–1850
10 Coffee FactsCoffee isthe second most valuable item of legal international trade – after petroleum.the largest food import of the United States by value.
11 Coffee Facts The world drinks 2.25 billion cups of coffee per day. The United States – with 5% of the world’s population – consumes 20% of the world’s coffee.
12 Coffee Facts20 million people around the world work on coffee plantationsEvery cup of coffee requires 1.4 square feet of land – a little less than twice the size of a standard 8½ by 11 inch piece of paper.For a total of 26.8 million acres.
13 Coffee FactsThe 13.6 billion pounds produced in 1996 would make a pyramid higher than the Eiffel Tower.
14 The Largest Producers in the 1990s Richard W. FrankeThe Largest Producers in the 1990sBrazilColombiaIndonesiaMexicoEthiopiaGuatemalaIndiaSource: Dicum, Gregory and Luttinger, Nina The Coffee Book: Anatomy of an Industry from Crop to the Last Drop. New York. The New Press. Page 41. Figures from FAO.billion pounds annuallybillionmillionmillionmillionmillionmillionSource: Dicum, Gregory and Luttinger, Nina The Coffee Book: Anatomy of an Industry from Crop to the Last Drop. New York. The New Press. Page 41. Figures from FAO.This slide was updated 29 April 2013
15 Richard W. FrankeBut only 13 cents on the dollar goes to the farmers and laborers who produce the coffee.
16 Coffee FactsWhile 67 cents goes for roasting, grinding, packaging, trucking, and advertising.We will return to this problem in the final section of this presentation when we consider “Fair Trade” coffee.
17 Why Coffee?Coffee’s famous active ingredient is caffeine, one of several hundred chemicals in a single cup.Caffeine is a type of xantine, the name for a set of compounds found in tea, cocoa, and other plants.
18 Why Coffee?Caffeine –1,3,7-trimethylxanthine–blocks the action of a brain neurotransmitter named adenosine. By blocking the ability of adenosine to bind with its receptors in the brain – a binding that causes sedation – caffeine effectively stimulates brain activity.
19 Why Coffee?Coffee contains 80 to 150 milligrams of caffeine per cup, more than twice as much as a cola, and more per cup than tea.Two cups of coffee produce enough increased brain activity to show up on an EEG (electroencephalograph).
20 Why Coffee?Four cups or more will increase the heart rate and the breathing.Caffeine takes effect in most people within 30 to 60 minutes.
21 CaffeinismToo much caffeine affects the central nervous system, leading to anxiety, irritability, nervousness, lightheadedness, or diarrhea.
22 CaffeinismHabitual drinkers suffer from fatigue and pounding headaches when they try to stop or reduce their intake.
23 CaffeinismCaffeine interferes with tranquilizers such as valium, but caffeine’s effects can be heightened when ingested while taking birth control pills and some other drugs that cause the caffeine to accumulate in the body.
24 Caffeine As MedicineCaffeine dilates the blood vessels leading to the heart, thus increasing blood flow, while restricting blood flow in the head, which helps to diminish headaches – even migraines.
25 Caffeine As MedicineXanthines such as caffeine dilate the bronchioles in the lungs and relax the smooth muscles which regulate respiration. A couple cups of coffee can reduce the severity of an asthma attack – something known for centuries.
26 Caffeine As MedicineStatistical research suggests that regular coffee drinkers are less likely to commit suicide and less likely to suffer from hypertension, diabetes, ulcers, and some other diseases.Drinking fewer than five cups a day keeps you safe from any increased risk of heart disease.
27 Caffeine And DiseaseHowever, caffeine causes females to lose calcium and thus increases the risk of osteoporosis unless offset by ingestion of additional calcium.
28 Caffeine And DiseaseCoffee has been implicated in several types of cancer, premature births, low birth weight babies, and heart disease.However, further research suggests that coffee drinkers may have a greater tendency to engage in other behavior such as smoking that is the immediate cause of these problems.
29 Coffee and Socialability It is the social aspect of coffee drinking – perhaps connected to caffeine’s stimulation of the nervous system and brain – that has made coffee the focus of so much activity and attention throughout its brief history.
30 We will review some of the history of coffee, coffeehouses, politics, and society shortly. But first…
31 What Is Coffee?Coffee is the fruit of a woody shrub of the genus Coffea, in the family Rubiaceae.The coffee bush can grow to a height of 32 feet, but is usually cut off at about 8 feet.It grew originally in the tropical forests of Africa
32 What Is Coffee?Coffee requires a lot of sunshine, moderate rainfall, altitudes between sea level and 6,000 feet, average temperatures between 60 and 70 degrees Fahrenheit, and freedom from frost.After the flowers pollinate, small “cherries” develop, each with two seeds, or coffee “beans.”
33 What Is Coffee?After 7 to 11 months, the green cherries ripen, turning red.One coffee bush can produce about 4,000 beans per year = one pound of roasted coffee.
34 What Is Coffee? There are more than 20 species of coffee, but… …only two account for most of the world’s production and consumption.
35 What Is Coffee?Coffea arabica, the original coffee, and considered by most people to have the better taste.About ¾ of the world’s coffee is arabica today.Coffea canephora, known to most people as “robusta.”Robusta has more caffeine, grows in hotter climates, and is more disease resistant.
36 What Is Coffee?The coffee bean is a complex biological entity
37 What Is Coffee? The beans are dried and roasted. Much of this tedious and low paid work is done by women throughout the world – as shown here by women in Zaire, Central Africa.
38 Origin of CoffeeCoffee comes to the world from Ethiopia – a country of Eastern Africa.It has the longest known history of any African nation except for Egypt.Once known as “Kush,” (including part of modern day Sudan) Ethiopia or Sudan produced at least one of the pharaohs of ancient Egypt in the 8th Century BC.
39 EthiopiaThe Queen of Sheba is thought by some to have been an Ethiopian monarch.Modern Ethiopia is a complex nation with a population of 91 million people in 2012 – second only to Nigeria in Africa.85 languages are spoken within its borders in addition to Arabic and English that are widely used as connecting languages (lingua francas).
40 EthiopiaThe Blue Nile, the main source of the Nile River of Egypt, originates in Lake Tana of Northwest EthiopiaAbout 45% of Ethiopia’s people are Muslim, while…About 40% are Ethiopian Orthodox, also called “Coptic Christians.”
41 Coptic ChristianityCoptic Christians believe that their religion was founded by Saint Mark.“Coptic” means “Egyptian.”They follow their own Pope who resides in Alexandria Egypt.The present Coptic Pope is Shenouda III.Coptic Christians have their own version of the Bible and in Ethiopia they have their own written language in which their Bible is printed.
42 Coptic ChristianityCoptic Christianity is thought by scholars to be as old as 60 AD in Egypt and almost that old in Ethiopia. This hymn and prayer book with Arabic translations in the right hand column resides in The Coptic Museum in Cairo, Egypt.
43 Origin of Coffee But neither Muslims nor Christians invented coffee. Our word “coffee” probably comes from the Ethiopian “Kaffa,” a province of ancient Abyssinia (Ethiopia) where the Galla or Kafischo speaking people lived.The map on the next slide shows where coffee was invented.
45 Origin of CoffeeThe Kaffa area is southwest of the modern capital of Addis Ababa……and just west of the Great Rift Valley, where the African continent is splitting apart in one of the world’s great geological processes.
47 Origin of CoffeeHere, by or before 575 AD the Galla people began harvesting and eating the coffee beans for quick energy.Originally, the beans were crushed in with balls of animal fat to create a high protein energy bar for use on long treks.
48 Origin of CoffeeA modern Ethiopian recipe maintains the historical origin of coffee: mix fire-roasted beans with salt, butter, onions, fenugreek, white cumin, basil, cardamom, oregano, and turmeric.Nearby ethnic groups began brewing the beans with boiling water or fermenting them into a coffee wine.
49 Origin of CoffeeOne local Ethiopian story has it that a shepherd named “Kaldi,” (“hot” in Arabic) noticed his goats behaving strangely after ingesting the red berries.The real discoverer of coffee may remain forever anonymous.
50 The Muslim ConnectionThe spread of coffee out of the high plateau of southwestern Ethiopia was facilitated by traders and scholars of the Muslim world of the time of the European Middle Ages.
51 The Muslim ConnectionBy the 9th and 10th Centuries coffee had made its way to Mocha, a port on the Red Sea where it quickly became a popular drink.
53 The Muslim Connection This was the time of: Charlemagne Alfred The GreatDiscovery of IcelandLondon BridgeClassic Age of the Maya
54 The Muslim Connection And in the Muslim World: Richard W. FrankeThe Muslim ConnectionAnd in the Muslim World:Chwarazmi coins the word “algebra”Adoption of Indian numbers, including zeroPerfection of the AstrolabeCórdoba, Spain becomes Arabic scientific and medical centerArabs bring the trumpet to European musicSource: Grun, Bernard The Timetables of History. New York: Simon and Schuster. New Third Revised Edition.Grun, Bernard The Timetables of History. New York: Simon and Schuster. New Third Revised Edition.
55 The Muslim ConnectionScholars now agree that coffee was spread initially in and around the Yemeni port of Mocha by members of the Sufi sect among Muslims. [Not to be confused with the Sunnis, the majority tendency in Islam.]
56 The Sufi ConnectionSufism is a mystical branch of Islam, oblivious to the outside world, searching for God through a spiritual merging. Sufism produced some of Islam’s greatest poetry.Sufis hold dhikrs – communal worship services at night – where they attempt to induce a trancelike state.
57 Richard W. FrankeThe Sufi ConnectionThese trances are often induced by the rhythmic repetition of the name of God, or by the shahāda, the Muslim profession of faith – “There is no God but God and Mohammed is his messenger” – often with group swaying of the bodies to produce a hypnotic effect.Source: Hattox, Ralph S Coffee and Coffeehouses: The Origins of a Social Beverage in the Medieval Near East. Seattle: University of Washington Near Eastern Studies No. 3. Pages 23–25Hattox, pages 23–25.
58 The Sufi ConnectionMuslims are forbidden to take alcohol [the word alcohol is Arabic], but Sufi mystics found the stimulation from coffee to be theologically acceptable and gave it the name qahwa, from an Arabic word referring to wine. Some scholars believe this is the origin of the word coffee.
59 The Sufi ConnectionBy the 15th Century, Sufis were practicing their form of Islam throughout the Muslim world. They may have spread the practice of coffee drinking from the Yemeni Sufi community to Sufi communities throughout the Muslim world.
60 The Sufi ConnectionFrom the Sufi trance sessions, coffee also began to spread into secular life in Yemen, being sold on the street and in special drinking spots called “coffee houses.”
61 A reaction set in from the authorities: Men who frequented the coffee houses were accused of gambling, criminal activity, sexual adventures, and criticizing the rulers.
62 Richard W. FrankeThe Muslim ConnectionIn 1511, Khair-Beg, the governor of nearby Mecca, Islam’s holiest site, outlawed coffee and the coffee houses after hearing that the patrons were reciting satirical poems about him.Source: Pendergrast, Mark Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World. New York: Basic Books. Page 6.Pendergrast, page 6.
63 The Muslim ConnectionKhair-Beg’s official physicians and theological advisors pronounced coffee a violation of the Islamic injunction against alcohol, even though coffee is not mentioned in The Koran, Islam’s holy text.
64 The Muslim ConnectionThey claimed that coffee induces the state of sukr, or intoxication, that the Koran does forbid.Word shortly came from Cairo, where the most prestigious Islamic scholars of the time congregated and taught…
65 …at the Al-Ahzar Mosque and university, that coffee did not violate Islamic law.
66 The Muslim ConnectionWhen the Ottoman Turks conquered Yemen in 1536, the stage was set for the further spread of coffee because it was primarily through the Ottoman Turkish empire that coffee drinking spread into Europe.
67 Coffee Comes to Europe Through Alpini… Prospero Alpini, an Italian doctor who visited Egypt in 1592 may have been the first to bring coffee to Europe.Through Alpini…
68 Coffee Comes to Europe …coffee made its way to: Venice in 1615 Richard W. FrankeCoffee Comes to Europe…coffee made its way to:Venice in 1615Lyons and Paris in 1644London in 1650Vienna in 1651Sweden in 1675Source: Braudel, page 184.Braudel, page 184.
69 Richard W. FrankeCoffee Comes to EuropeEuropeans quickly moved to break free of Arab-Islamic control over the coffee trade.The Dutch planted coffee shrubs in Sri Lanka (Ceylon) in 1658, and in Java from 1712 – later producing so much coffee that the drink became known for many decades as a “cup of Java.”Sources: Braudel, page 187; Pendergrast, page 7.Braudel, page 187; Pendergrast, page 7.
70 Coffee Comes to EuropeBy 1722 the French were planting coffee on the Caribbean islands under their control.When Napoleon’s troops drove the Portuguese king from Lisbon in 1807, British ships carried him to Brazil where he set up coffee plantations to pay for his expensive life style.
71 Coffee Comes to EuropeLike the Muslims before them, Europeans took to coffee with a craze but found themselves in a hot debate about its qualities.
72 Coffee Comes to EuropeFear of the “immoral” consequences of coffee drinking led middle class fathers to forbid the drink to their daughters.In 1732 this led Johann Sebastian Bach to write Cantata No. 211 – the “Coffee Cantata.”
73 Coffee Comes to EuropeSings daughter Lieschen to her father Schlendrian:“If I don’t have my three cups of coffee a day, I’m like a dried up piece of roast goat.”
74 Coffee Comes to EuropePapa Schlendrian threatens her with every kind of restriction, but she wants her coffee. Only when he refuses to find her a husband does she relent.But Lieschen lets the word out around town: she will wed only the man who assures her 3 cups of coffee per day.
75 Coffee Comes to Europe 2013 Update To watch a performance of Bach’s 27 minuteCoffee Cantata on youtube,click here.This slide was added 06 November 2013
77 Without the Muslims as shown in the previous slide of Lloyd’s Coffeehouse in 17th Century England, where……Gentlemen discussed the shipping news – Lloyds was and is one of the biggest shipping insurance companies – and put coins in a small brass can labeled “To Insure Promptness”: later shortened to TIP.
78 Coffeehouses and Revolution As in Muslim Yemen, Egypt, and Turkey, the coffeehouse in Europe became associated with anti-ruler political activities.Conservatives tried to shut down coffeehouses, but with little success.
79 Coffeehouses and Revolution From the Café Foy in 1789 Camille Desmoulins led the crowd that brought down the Bastille – Louis XIV’s hated prison
80 Coffeehouses and Revolution On Dec 16, 1773 American colonists dressed as Mohawk Indians threw overboard 342 crates of British tea in Boston.
81 Coffeehouses and Revolution The group, calling itself the “Sons of Liberty,” had planned the event in a nearby coffeehouse.
82 Coffee in AmericaBut most 18th and early 19th century Americans – including children – drank cider or beer along with their corn, potatoes, and pork.
83 Coffee in AmericaDuring the war of 1812, when Britain defeated a U.S. attempt to annex Canada, Americans began drinking more and more coffee in a wave of enthusiasm for everything French.But generally coffee in the mostly rural 19th Century U.S. got brewed and drunk at home.
84 Coffee in AmericaHome roasted American coffee was boiled in a pot with flavorings such as eggs, fish, and eel skins.The addition of sugar and milk was said to improve the flavor.
85 Coffee in AmericaDuring the Civil War, Union troops were supplied daily with one-tenth of a pound of green coffee beans.After the war in 1865, the giant coffee companies arose:
86 Coffee in America Arbuckle’s Ariosa Coffee (later called Yuban) Chase and SanbornFolgersHills BrothersMaxwell HouseA and PJewel Tea
87 Coffee in AmericaHome roasting was replaced by giant roasting factories where men worked 10 hour days 6 days a week and were often burned or asphixiated.Companies fought price and advertising wars……and battled anti-coffee products such as Postum.
88 In 1952 the Pan American Coffee Bureau invented the coffee break.
89 Caffeine At WorkThe coffee break uses caffeine to mobilize body fat and make it available to the muscles. Workers feel rejuvenated because, in a chemical sense, they are.
90 And American industry found ever new ways to make coffee less social and worse tasting.
91 From Berkeley to Starbucks The modern coffeehouse movement in America developed in the 1960s.Dutch immigrant Alfred Peet opened Peet’s Coffee & Tea in 1966 in Berkeley, California. Using high quality Arabica beans from Colombia, he soon had crowds lined around the block.
92 From Berkeley to Starbucks Richard W. FrankeFrom Berkeley to StarbucksAs the Vietnam war escalated in the late 1960s, antiwar activists opened coffee houses on the outskirts of military bases.Soldiers and veterans grew long hair and talked of atrocities and anger. The GI antiwar movement was a key element in the eventual US withdrawal.Source: Pendergrast, pages 299–300.Pendergrast, pages 299–300.
93 From Berkeley to Starbucks In 1971 Jerry Baldwin, Gordon Bowker, and Zev Siegl (left to right) founded Starbucks in Seattle.
94 From Berkeley to Starbucks As it grew in size, Starbucks was criticized for driving small local coffeehouses out of business.
95 Fair Trade CoffeeIn 1987, Franz van der Hoff, a Dutch priest working with a coffee cooperative in Oaxaca, Mexico, set up a trading arrangement with Solidaridad, a Dutch support group in The Netherlands. Small importers who were battling Douwe Egberts, the Dutch mega-coffee company, offered to help market the coffee.
96 Fair Trade CoffeeThe Dutch radicals named their certifying agency the “Max Havelaar Quality Mark,” after the title of the most famous novel in Dutch literature.
97 Fair Trade CoffeePublished in 1860, the book set off a storm of protest and self-reflection in colonial Holland, for its denunciation of the mistreatment of the Javanese colonial subjects – mistreatment ultimately…
98 Fair Trade Coffee…in the name of coffee. The fictional hero, Max Havelaar, is a colonial official who finds the system of oppression too much in conflict with his morals. The book shifts back and forth between an Amsterdam coffee merchant interested only in profits and the lush Javanese countryside where Havelaar battles injustice – unsuccessfully.
99 Fair Trade CoffeeThe novel’s beautiful language earned the author the title “The Dutch Shakespeare,” and the structure is said to have influenced Joseph Conrad’s Lord Jim and Heart of Darkness – both of which utilize a version of it. D. H. Lawrence is also said to have been an admirer of the author, Eduard Douwes Dekker, who took the pen name “Multituli,” Latin for “I have suffered much.”
100 Fair Trade Coffee Not Just a Cup, but a Just Cup During the same period, American Paul Katzeff was setting up “Coffee for Peace,” and selling Nicaraguan coffee in the USA.
101 Fair Trade CoffeeBy the 1990s the Max Havelaar certifying agency and the US Fair Trade movement had merged efforts to produce an international marketing network with three main goals:
102 Fair Trade CoffeeFair prices to the coffee producers and laborers – remember slide 13 where only 13 cents on the dollar goes to the producers.Organic or pesticide free coffee.Shade grown coffee that leaves the major trees for bird habitats and climate and environmental protection.
103 Fair Trade Coffee Criteria Fairtrade labelling has established the following general criteria for its products:a price that covers the cost of productionsocial premium for development purposes…and…
104 Fair Trade Coffee Criteria partial payment in advance to avoid small producer organizations falling into debtlong term trade relations that allow proper planning and sustainable production practicescontracts that allow long term production planning
105 Fair Trade Production Conditions Fair production conditions include:for small farmers’ co-operatives a democratic, participative structurefor plantations and factories the workers should have:decent wages (at least the legal minimum)good housing, where appropriateminimum health and safety standardsthe right to join trade unionsno child or forced laborminimum environmental requirements
106 Fair Trade Coffee So who sells fair trade coffee? Starbucks …and… Global ExchangeEqual Exchange
107 Fair Trade CoffeeStarbucks and other retail outlets do not tend to feature fair trade coffee. You have to look for it and ask for it……and it does cost 10% to 20% more.
108 Fair Trade Coffee Pricing Fair trade coffee is priced to the producers at 5 cents per pound above the New York or London market prices for regular coffee and 15 cents higher than that for certified organic coffee.
109 Fair Trade Coffee Pricing In addition, minimum prices come into effect for fair trade coffee – but NOT for other coffee – when the market prices drop below certain levels. For example, washed arabica cannot go below $1.26 per pound while certified organic cannot fall below $1.410
110 Fair Trade Coffee 2013 Update Richard W. FrankeFair Trade Coffee 2013 UpdateA New York Times feature article in the Business Section for 17 March 2013 describes a new development in Fair Trade Coffee: some producers are able to process the coffee and sell at the higher finished price of $7.25 or even more.This higher price comes with various difficulties such as the problem of small producers being able to guarantee the flavor.To read the NYTimes article, click here.This slide was added 18 March 2013
111 Why We Need Fair Trade Coffee Coffee prices to the producers are at their lowest level in 100 years, and are only ¼ of what they were in 1960.In many areas producers are losing so much money they cannot afford to keep their children in school, cannot afford health care, or are about to lose their land.Some farmers are switching to drug production out of desperation.
112 Why We Need Fair Trade Coffee Richard W. FrankeWhy We Need Fair Trade CoffeeMeanwhile corporate profits in coffee are on the rise.Sara Lee’s beverage profits – mostly from coffee – were up 17% in 2002.Nestlé now makes 26 cents on the dollar for its instant coffee in England.Mugged. Pages
113 Why We Need Fair Trade Coffee The price protections alone for fair trade coffee are thus becoming a life and death matter for millions in the Third World who produce the coffee.
114 Why We Need Fair Trade Coffee Fair trade coffee protectsProducersConsumersThe environment…and
115 Why We Need Fair Trade Coffee …it is part of a larger question sometimes forgotten in the individualistic, competitive world of modern capitalism…What is the economy for?
120 United Students for Fair Trade: http://www.usft.org Transfair USA: Montclair State University Department of Anthropology Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World Professor Emeritus Richard W. FrankeUnited Students for Fair Trade:Transfair USA:Fair Trade Federation:Global Exchange:
121 2013 Update: Fair Trade Sugar Richard W. FrankeMontclair State University Department of Anthropology Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World Professor Emeritus Richard W. Franke2013 Update: Fair Trade SugarIf you put sugar in your coffee, you might want to know that much sugar has been heavily sprayed with pesticides and/or herbicides and most used in the US today is also GMO (genetically modified).Fair Trade Sugar, however, is mostly free of sprayed chemicals and is non-GMO. For more info on this, including info on how to find fair trade sugar locally, click on the link below:This slide was added 29 April 2013
122 Coffee: An Afro-Arab Contribution and Montclair State University Department of Anthropology Anth 140: Non Western Contributions to the Western World Professor Emeritus Richard W. FrankeEnd of slides for Week 12Coffee: An Afro-Arab Contribution andFair Trade Coffee