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Motivation. Today we cover How does motivation activate, direct, and sustain behavior? How do people achieve personal goals? What is addiction? –Drugs.

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Presentation on theme: "Motivation. Today we cover How does motivation activate, direct, and sustain behavior? How do people achieve personal goals? What is addiction? –Drugs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Motivation

2 Today we cover How does motivation activate, direct, and sustain behavior? How do people achieve personal goals? What is addiction? –Drugs and Alcohol Opiates MDMA Marijuana LSD Alcohol

3 Motivation A need or desire that energizes or directs a behavior A hypothetical state within an organism that propels it toward -Instigation and maintenance of a behavior -Achievement of a goal

4 Some Definitions … Instinct: A complex unlearned behavior rigidly patterned throughout a species Homeostasis: A tendency to maintain a constant internal state Drive-reduction theory: A physiological need creates arousal which motivates an organism to satisfy the need

5 Definitions “Needs” are states of deficiency “Drives” are psychological states activated to satisfy needs Needs produce states of arousal which drive behavior “Incentives” are external motivators that motivate behaviors

6 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Crandall & Jones (1986): Scale Satisfaction of lower level needs creates upper level needs Motivation enables satisfaction of needs

7 Fig. 9.6

8 The pleasure principle Motivational states arouse behaviors that solve adaptive problems and produce pleasure Pleasure is associated with dopamine release, and many pleasurable behaviors exceed adaptive needs

9 Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation = external goals Intrinsic motivation = value or pleasure of an activity for its own sake Intrinsic motivators –Curiosity –Play –Creativity –Problem solving What happens when you give extrinsic motive for an intrinsically motivated activity?

10 What Is Addiction?

11 Addiction Has Psychological and Physical Aspects Physical vs. psychological dependence Both negative and positive reinforcement operate in producing addiction Both social and individual levels of analysis contribute to causation Experimenters are better adjusted than abstainers

12 Dependence Physical Dependence Psychological Dependence –“kicking the habit” –“going cold turkey”

13 Negative and Positive Reinforcement Drugs operate via negative and positive reinforcement –Using: positive reinforcement –Withdrawal unpleasant: using again = negative reinforcement –Withdrawal symptoms: positive punishment

14 Psychopharmacology The study of the effects of drugs on mood, sensation, consciousness, or other psychological or behavioral functions

15 Stimulants Increase behavioral and mental activity Activate the sympathetic nervous system Interfere with the normal reuptake of dopamine by the releasing neuron Some stimulants also increase the release of dopamine Caffeine, cocaine, amphetamines

16 Amphetamine Psychosis Psychosis resulting from the use of amphetamines Paranoia, delusions, hallucinations, and thought disorder

17 MDMA (Ecstasy) stimulates the release and inhibits the reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) “Tuesday Blues” Therapeutic applications?

18 Neurotoxicity of MDMA

19 The most widely used illegal drug in North America Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) THC receptors in the hippocampus Impaired focus, attention, comprehension “Cognitive impairment from heavy marijuana use may linger for a week or longer, but it does not appear to be permanent" -Harrison Pope Marijuana

20 Opiates Analgesic properties Opium, heroine, morphine, codeine Highly addictive Cocaine developed as a cure for opiate addiction

21 D-Lysergic acid diethylamide, Psilocybin, mescaline LSD: actions at multiple receptors Not physiologically addictive, no withdrawal, and no documented toxic fatalities Psychosis: sometimes prolonged Flashbacks and Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD) Hallucinogens

22 What is Alcohol? Alcohol is a sedative It is primarily used for recreation, not medicine 2nd most commonly used psychoactive drug in the world (first is caffeine)

23 Alcohol Is the Most Widely Abused Drug Alcohol’s believed effects motivate drinking The balanced placebo design helps researchers separate alcohol effects from alcohol-expectancy effects Believing one has consumed alcohol can produce learned disinhibition of social behaviors

24 Fig. 9.16

25 The Pharmacokinetics of Alcohol: Absorption Alcohol is soluble in both fat and water This means alcohol is absorbed though the gastrointestinal tract and through the blood brain barrier 20% is absorbed through the stomach the other 80% through the upper intestine

26 Concentration-Effect Relationship BAC [%]Effects Mood elevation. Slight muscle relaxation Relaxation and Warmth. Increased reaction time. Decreased fine muscle coordination Impaired balance, speech, vision, hearing, muscle coordination. Euphoria Gross impairment of physical and mental control Severely intoxicated. Very little control of mind or body Unconscious. Deep coma. Death from respiratory depression

27 The Pharmacokinetics of Alcohol: Distribution Alcohol easily crosses the blood-brain barrier because it is lipid soluble Alcohol can even cross the placental barrier and cause fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). FAS occurs in 30% to 50% of the infants of alcoholic mothers.

28 Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

29 Genetic Variation in ALDH Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH) varies in Whites, Blacks and Asians. 50% of Asians have inactive ALDH Elevated acetaldehyde cause increased flushing, tachycardia (elevated heart rate), nausea, vomiting & hyperventilation.

30 Metabolism of Alcohol by Men and Women Since men have less fat then women and larger blood vessels, men have a lower Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) than women Also, women have 50% less enzyme then men, thus the metabolism rate is slower for alcohol absorption, so it takes longer for females’ bodies to rid themselves of the alcohol


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