Presentation on theme: "Drugs. Influences on Drug Use Biological – heredity – Identical twins – Adoption studies – Boys at age 6 excitable, fearless, impulsive (genetic traits)"— Presentation transcript:
Influences on Drug Use Biological – heredity – Identical twins – Adoption studies – Boys at age 6 excitable, fearless, impulsive (genetic traits) are more likely to take drugs – NPY – brain chemical more sensitive to alcohol – Gene identified to predispose people to alcohol dependence Psychological – Lacking sense of purpose – Stress – Depression Social-cultural – Urban enviro – Cultural attitude toward drugs – Peer influences
Drugs Our brain is protected by a layer of capillaries called the blood-brain barrier. The drugs that are small enough to pass through are called psychoactive drugs.
Psychoactive Drugs Psychoactive Drugs - Chemicals that alter moods and perceptions through actions on neural synapses Altered state (altered moods and perceptions)associated with changes in brain activity Examples: alcohol, marijuana, cocaine (depressants, hallucinogens, stimulants)
Dependence and Addiction Addiction – compulsive craving for a drug despite adverse consequences – What about each of our three major types of drugs make someone want to keep taking them? Sense of well-being, feeling of euphoria, blissful pleasure, relief from anxiety, increased self-confidence, alertness Withdrawal symptoms can contribute to addiction Tolerance – need to take larger and larger doses to experience the same effects – Neuroadaptation - change in brain chemistry that offsets the effects of a psychoactive drug Withdrawal – discomfort and distress that follow the discontinued use of certain drugs (aches, nausea, distress) Physical dependence – physiological need for a drug indicated by withdrawal symptoms Psychological dependence – psychological need to use a drug
Depressants Slows down body processes and calms neural activity. – Breathing slows, pupils constrict, anxiety replaced by pleasure Alcohol Barbiturates/ tranquilizers Opiates (morphine, heroine)
Alcohol More than 86 billion dollars are spent annually on alcoholic beverages. Alcohol is involved in 60% of ALL crimes. Alcohol is involved in over 70% of sexually related crimes. Is it worth the cost?
Opiates Agonist for endorphins. Morphine, heroin, methadone and codeine. Pupils constrict, breathing slows, lethargy, blissful pleasure replaces pain and anxiety Highly addictive Brain stops producing own opiates (endorphins) – brain will lack painkilling neurotransmitters after withdrawal
Stimulants Excite neural activity and speed up body processes. – Increased heart and breathing rates, pupils dilate, appetite diminishes, energy increases More powerful ones (like cocaine) give people feelings of invincibility. Amphetamines Methamphetamines Caffeine Nicotine Cocaine Ecstasy
Hallucinogens Psychedelics Causes changes in perceptions of reality LSD, peyote, psilocybin mushrooms and marijuana. Reverse tolerance or synergistic effect
An altered state of consciousness in which people experience fantastic images and often feel separated from their bodies is most closely associated with the use of 1.Heroin 2.Cocaine 3.Barbiturates 4.Marijuana 5.LSD 1234567891011121314151617181920 21222324
Barbiturates are considered 1.Stimulants 2.Hallucinogens 3.Depressants 4.Opiates 5.Both a depressant and hallucinogen 1234567891011121314151617181920 21222324
What do methamphetamine, caffeine and cocaine have in common? 1.They slow body functions and calm neural activity 2.They depress neural functioning and reduce pain 3.The distort perceptions and evoke sensations without sensory input 4.They excite neural activity and arouse body function 5.They relax the body, lead to disinhibition and produce euphoria 1234567891011121314151617181920 21222324