Presentation on theme: "A good friend of yours hopes that hypnosis will improve his memory and help him study longer and more effectively. He worries, however, that he might not."— Presentation transcript:
1 A good friend of yours hopes that hypnosis will improve his memory and help him study longer and more effectively. He worries, however, that he might not be easily hypnotized. Your mother hopes that hypnosis will help relieve her arthritis pain but fears that under hypnosis she might do something embarrassing. Discuss the extent to which the hopes and fears of your friend and your mother are realistic. Where appropriate, use research evidence to support your conclusions.Students should explain that your friend should not count on hypnosis to improve his recall after studying, because research indicates that “hypnotically refreshed” memories are often inaccurate. Your friend could be told that approximately 20 percent of people are highly hypnotizable. Your mother should be told that studies support the idea that hypnosis can relieve pain, but studies also indicate that hypnotists can induce patients to perform unlikely acts (although a legitimate therapist would be unlikely to induce anything unethical or harmful to the patient).
3 Influences on Drug Use Biological – heredity Psychological Identical twinsAdoption studiesBoys at age 6 excitable, fearless, impulsive (genetic traits) are more likely to take drugsNPY – brain chemical more sensitive to alcoholGene identified to predispose people to alcohol dependencePsychologicalLacking sense of purposeStressDepressionSocial-culturalUrban enviroCultural attitude toward drugsPeer influencesAdoptive individuals are more suseptible to alcohol dependence if one or more biological parents have a history of itHaving an identical twin with alcoholism puts one at an increased risk for alcohol problemsMust look at other psychological and social cultural influence on alcohol use = biopsychosocial approachPsychological – feeling that one’s life is meaningless is an important factor contributing to drug useUrban enviro – readily available drugsThe best predictor of an adolescent's pattern of drug usage is whether the adolescent has friends who are drug users
4 Drugs blood-brain barrier – capillaries that protect our drug. psychoactive drugs - drugs that are small enough to pass through .
5 Psychoactive DrugsPsychoactive Drugs - Chemicals that alter moods and perceptions through actions on neural synapsesAltered state (altered moods and perceptions)associated with changes in brain activityExamples: alcohol, marijuana, cocaine (depressants, hallucinogens, stimulants)Alter moods and perception, both associated with altered states (awareness of ourselves and our environment is altered to a different mental state withAlcohol, marijuana, cocaine and a variety of chemical agents that alter moods and perceptions are called psychoactive drugs
7 Dependence and Addiction Addiction – compulsive craving for a drug despite adverse consequencesWhat about each of our three major types of drugs make someone want to keep taking them?Sense of well-being, feeling of euphoria , blissful pleasure, relief from anxiety, increased self-confidence, alertnessWithdrawal symptoms can contribute to addictionTolerance – need to take larger and larger doses to experience the same effectsNeuroadaptation - change in brain chemistry that offsets the effects of a psychoactive drugWithdrawal – discomfort and distress that follow the discontinued use of certain drugs (aches, nausea, distress)Physical dependence – physiological need for a drug indicated by withdrawal symptomsPsychological dependence – psychological need to use a drugPhysical dependence = drug addictionAddiction – adverse consequences = legal problems, loss of job, loss of familyMany people are able to stop using addictive drugs without professional help
8 Drugs are either…. Agonists – mimics neurotransmitters Opiates (heroine, morphine) mimic endorphinsAntagonists – block neurotransmittersLSD – blocks serotoninReuptake inhibitorsCocaine – blocks reuptake of dopamine, Ecstasy blocks reuptake of serotonin
9 DepressantsDepressants - Slow down body processes and calms neural activity.Breathing slows, pupils constrict, anxiety replaced by pleasureAlcoholBarbiturates/ tranquilizersOpiates (morphine, heroine)
10 Alcohol Depressant Disinhibition (lowers inhibition) Euphoria Feelings of self confidenceAggressiveReduces self-awareness and self-controlEuphoriaSlowed neural processingMemory disruption – disrupts processing of recent experiencesSuppresses REM sleep (no memory consolidation)Impairs grown of synaptic connections and contributes to nerve deathExpectancy Effects
11 Opiates Opiates - - Agonist for endorphins. Morphine, heroin, methadone and codeine.Pupils constrict, breathing slows, lethargy, blissful pleasure replaces pain and anxietyHighly addictiveBrain stops producing own opiates (endorphins)brain will lack painkilling neurotransmitters after withdrawal
12 StimulantsStimulants - Excite neural activity and speed up body processes.Increased heart and breathing rates, pupils dilate, appetite diminishes, energy increasesMore powerful ones (like cocaine) give people feelings of invincibility.AmphetaminesMethamphetaminesCaffeineNicotineCocaineEcstasy
13 Hallucinogens Psychedelics Causes changes in perceptions of reality LSD, peyote, psilocybin mushrooms and marijuana.Reverse tolerance or synergistic effect
14 Heroin Cocaine Barbiturates Marijuana LSD An altered state of consciousness in which people experience fantastic images and often feel separated from their bodies is most closely associated with the use ofHeroinCocaineBarbituratesMarijuanaLSDTable
15 Barbiturates are considered StimulantsHallucinogensDepressantsOpiatesBoth a depressant and hallucinogenTable
16 What do methamphetamine, caffeine and cocaine have in common? They slow body functions and calm neural activityThey depress neural functioning and reduce painThe distort perceptions and evoke sensations without sensory inputThey excite neural activity and arouse body functionThey relax the body, lead to disinhibition and produce euphoriaTable