Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

A good friend of yours hopes that hypnosis will improve his memory and help him study longer and more effectively. He worries, however, that he might not.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "A good friend of yours hopes that hypnosis will improve his memory and help him study longer and more effectively. He worries, however, that he might not."— Presentation transcript:

1 A good friend of yours hopes that hypnosis will improve his memory and help him study longer and more effectively. He worries, however, that he might not be easily hypnotized. Your mother hopes that hypnosis will help relieve her arthritis pain but fears that under hypnosis she might do something embarrassing. Discuss the extent to which the hopes and fears of your friend and your mother are realistic. Where appropriate, use research evidence to support your conclusions. Students should explain that your friend should not count on hypnosis to improve his recall after studying, because research indicates that “hypnotically refreshed” memories are often inaccurate. Your friend could be told that approximately 20 percent of people are highly hypnotizable. Your mother should be told that studies support the idea that hypnosis can relieve pain, but studies also indicate that hypnotists can induce patients to perform unlikely acts (although a legitimate therapist would be unlikely to induce anything unethical or harmful to the patient).

2 Drugs

3 Influences on Drug Use Biological – heredity Psychological
Identical twins Adoption studies Boys at age 6 excitable, fearless, impulsive (genetic traits) are more likely to take drugs NPY – brain chemical more sensitive to alcohol Gene identified to predispose people to alcohol dependence Psychological Lacking sense of purpose Stress Depression Social-cultural Urban enviro Cultural attitude toward drugs Peer influences Adoptive individuals are more suseptible to alcohol dependence if one or more biological parents have a history of it Having an identical twin with alcoholism puts one at an increased risk for alcohol problems Must look at other psychological and social cultural influence on alcohol use = biopsychosocial approach Psychological – feeling that one’s life is meaningless is an important factor contributing to drug use Urban enviro – readily available drugs The best predictor of an adolescent's pattern of drug usage is whether the adolescent has friends who are drug users

4 Drugs blood-brain barrier – capillaries that protect our drug.
psychoactive drugs - drugs that are small enough to pass through .

5 Psychoactive Drugs Psychoactive Drugs - Chemicals that alter moods and perceptions through actions on neural synapses Altered state (altered moods and perceptions)associated with changes in brain activity Examples: alcohol, marijuana, cocaine (depressants, hallucinogens, stimulants) Alter moods and perception, both associated with altered states (awareness of ourselves and our environment is altered to a different mental state with Alcohol, marijuana, cocaine and a variety of chemical agents that alter moods and perceptions are called psychoactive drugs


7 Dependence and Addiction
Addiction – compulsive craving for a drug despite adverse consequences What about each of our three major types of drugs make someone want to keep taking them? Sense of well-being, feeling of euphoria , blissful pleasure, relief from anxiety, increased self-confidence, alertness Withdrawal symptoms can contribute to addiction Tolerance – need to take larger and larger doses to experience the same effects Neuroadaptation - change in brain chemistry that offsets the effects of a psychoactive drug Withdrawal – discomfort and distress that follow the discontinued use of certain drugs (aches, nausea, distress) Physical dependence – physiological need for a drug indicated by withdrawal symptoms Psychological dependence – psychological need to use a drug Physical dependence = drug addiction Addiction – adverse consequences = legal problems, loss of job, loss of family Many people are able to stop using addictive drugs without professional help

8 Drugs are either…. Agonists – mimics neurotransmitters
Opiates (heroine, morphine) mimic endorphins Antagonists – block neurotransmitters LSD – blocks serotonin Reuptake inhibitors Cocaine – blocks reuptake of dopamine, Ecstasy blocks reuptake of serotonin

9 Depressants Depressants - Slow down body processes and calms neural activity. Breathing slows, pupils constrict, anxiety replaced by pleasure Alcohol Barbiturates/ tranquilizers Opiates (morphine, heroine)

10 Alcohol Depressant Disinhibition (lowers inhibition) Euphoria
Feelings of self confidence Aggressive Reduces self-awareness and self-control Euphoria Slowed neural processing Memory disruption – disrupts processing of recent experiences Suppresses REM sleep (no memory consolidation) Impairs grown of synaptic connections and contributes to nerve death Expectancy Effects

11 Opiates Opiates - - Agonist for endorphins.
Morphine, heroin, methadone and codeine. Pupils constrict, breathing slows, lethargy, blissful pleasure replaces pain and anxiety Highly addictive Brain stops producing own opiates (endorphins) brain will lack painkilling neurotransmitters after withdrawal

12 Stimulants Stimulants - Excite neural activity and speed up body processes. Increased heart and breathing rates, pupils dilate, appetite diminishes, energy increases More powerful ones (like cocaine) give people feelings of invincibility. Amphetamines Methamphetamines Caffeine Nicotine Cocaine Ecstasy

13 Hallucinogens Psychedelics Causes changes in perceptions of reality
LSD, peyote, psilocybin mushrooms and marijuana. Reverse tolerance or synergistic effect

14 Heroin Cocaine Barbiturates Marijuana LSD
An altered state of consciousness in which people experience fantastic images and often feel separated from their bodies is most closely associated with the use of Heroin Cocaine Barbiturates Marijuana LSD Table

15 Barbiturates are considered
Stimulants Hallucinogens Depressants Opiates Both a depressant and hallucinogen Table

16 What do methamphetamine, caffeine and cocaine have in common?
They slow body functions and calm neural activity They depress neural functioning and reduce pain The distort perceptions and evoke sensations without sensory input They excite neural activity and arouse body function They relax the body, lead to disinhibition and produce euphoria Table

Download ppt "A good friend of yours hopes that hypnosis will improve his memory and help him study longer and more effectively. He worries, however, that he might not."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google