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© Copyright 2011, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 11 Caffeine
© Copyright 2011, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Caffeine Caffeine belongs to a family of stimulant drugs called xanthines. It is found in coffee, tea, chocolate, many soft drinks, and some medications. Other xanthines are theophylline (found in tea) and theobromine (found in chocolate).
© Copyright 2011, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Coffee Coffee drinking originated in the Middle East and later was introduced to England in the seventeenth century. Coffee houses in Britain and in colonial America sprang up as establishments where political and social discussions could be held.
© Copyright 2011, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Coffee Today’s coffee comes from a mixture of arabica and robusta beans, imported largely from Brazil, Colombia, Indonesia, and several nations in Africa. On average, a 5-ounce cup of coffee contains roughly 100 mg of caffeine, the actual level being determined by the type of coffee beans used and the method of brewing.
© Copyright 2011, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Tea Tea drinking originated in China and later was introduced to Europe by Dutch traders in the early seventeenth century. It became most popular in Britain and Russia.
© Copyright 2011, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Tea Today, tea consumption is greatest in Britain and Ireland. On average, a 5-ounce cup of tea contains roughly 60 mg of caffeine, the actual level being determined by the method of brewing and brand.
© Copyright 2011, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chocolate Chocolate originated in pre-Columbian Central America and was introduced into Europe by the return of Cortés to Spain in Its popularity spread across Europe in the seventeenth century.
© Copyright 2011, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chocolate By the 1880s, techniques for producing present-day milk chocolate had been perfected. The caffeine level in chocolate is relatively low, roughly 6 mg per ounce.
© Copyright 2011, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Soft Drinks Caffeinated colas have most of the caffeine content added to the beverage during production. Levels of caffeine in these beverages are approximately 38–45 mg per 12 ounces.
© Copyright 2011, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Table 11.1
© Copyright 2011, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Table 11.2
© Copyright 2011, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Table 11.3
© Copyright 2011, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Caffeine from Medications Like drugs, caffeine and other xanthines are stimulants of the CNS and of peripheral musculature. Theophylline, in particular, has a strong bronchodilating effect and is useful for treating asthmatic conditions.
© Copyright 2011, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Caffeine as a Drug The behavioral effects of caffeine can be characterized principally as a reduction in fatigue and boredom, as well as a delay in the onset of sleep. Recent evidence suggests that caffeine might lower the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease in men. A comparable protective role in women is currently uncertain.
© Copyright 2011, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Caffeine as a Drug Health risks from moderate consumption of caffeine are not clinically significant, except for the adverse effects on fetal development during pregnancy, the development of bone loss among the elderly, a possible adverse effect on the cardiac condition of patients already suffering from cardiovascular disease, and the aggravation of panic attacks among patients with this disorder.
© Copyright 2011, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Caffeine as a Drug Continued consumption of caffeine produces tolerance effects; when caffeine consumption ceases, withdrawal symptoms are observed. High levels of caffeine consumption can produce toxic effects, although deaths are extremely rare.
© Copyright 2011, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Kids and Caffeine Young people in the United States ingest increasingly large quantities of caffeine through the drinking of caffeinated soft drinks and coffee. The actual dosage level is substantial, since body weight is less than that of an adult.
© Copyright 2011, Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Kids and Caffeine Health concerns regarding caffeine consumption in this population include potential deficiencies in calcium and phosphorus for normal bone growth as well as behavioral problems such as insomnia, nervousness, and anxiety. The current popularity of highly caffeinated “energy drinks” has added to these problems.
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