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Stimulants Chemical Uppers. Pharmacology Administration – Ingestion – Injection – Inhalation Action – Causes release of excitatory neurotransmitter –

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Presentation on theme: "Stimulants Chemical Uppers. Pharmacology Administration – Ingestion – Injection – Inhalation Action – Causes release of excitatory neurotransmitter –"— Presentation transcript:

1 Stimulants Chemical Uppers

2 Pharmacology Administration – Ingestion – Injection – Inhalation Action – Causes release of excitatory neurotransmitter – norepinephrine, dopamine, adrenaline – Prevents release of inhibitory neurotransmitter - adenosine

3 Physiological Effects Increase CNS activity – alertness Increase concentration Increase heart rate Increase blood pressure Increase metabolism Decrease appetite Euphoria

4 Psychological Effects Decrease perception of fatigue Feel stronger, more decisive, & more self- possessed Feelings of paranoia, hallucinations, moodswings, anxiety, and irritability possible

5 Cocaine Natural stimulant; made from coca leaves Only medical use is throat or nasal surgery Purity? Administration / Effects – Snorted – onset in 3-5 min, lasts min. – Intravenous administration – lasts 10 min. Adverse effects – Irregular heart beat Crack – form of cocaine; formed into crystals then smoked; effects seen in seconds

6 Amphetamines Medical uses – Narcolepsy – Hyperactivity – Appetite suppressant Recreational uses – mood altering effects (pep) Athletic uses – Increase blood flow to muscles – Decrease sense of fatigue – Improve reaction time – Go beyond normal physiological limit – Increase time of productive work

7 Xanthines Blocks inhibitory neurotransmitter Caffeine – – Most common stimulant; many consider it harmless – of the xanthines has greatest stimulant effects Theophylline – Found in tea – Used as active ingredient in some OTC bronchodilators Theobromine – Small stimulant effect – Found in Chocolate

8 Physiological Effects of Caffeine Increase metabolism Increase blood pressure Increase heart rate Decrease appetite Increased alertness, decrease fatigue Vasoconstriction in the brain Diuresis Increase stomach acid release

9 Other Effects of Caffeine Withdrawal symptoms Caffeine & Diseases Ergogenic effects? – IOC - 12µg/ml – NCAA - 15µg/ml

10 Ephedrine From Ephedra shrub Found in many natural health products – Ma Huang & OTC products – asthma, weight loss – FDA approval for asthma and decongestant – Substitute for MDMA (ecstasy)

11 Effects of Ephedrine Physiological effects – Broncholilator, increase heart rate, increase blood pressure Side effects – Dizziness, irritability, anxiety Adverse effects – Stroke, heart attack, seizures, liver failure, insomnia, risk increases if used with caffeine Banned by IOC & NCAA


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